Furthermore, as stated by Raddant and Russo, “The inflammatory cascade can HSP tumor be triggered by CGRP actions on dural mast cells and satellite glial cells of the trigeminal ganglion. The peripheral CGRP-containing neurons (in the trigeminal ganglion and elsewhere) are polymodal nociceptors that innervate essentially all peripheral tissues and send primary afferent input to the dorsal horn, trigeminal nucleus caudalis, or nucleus of the solitary tract (which, in turn, project to the brainstem, amygdala, hypothalamus, and thalamic nuclei). CGRP-containing neurons in the trigeminal ganglion project to the trigeminal
nucleus caudalis and C1-C2, where CGRP also acts post-junctionally on these second-order neurons to transmit pain signals from the brainstem to the thalamus.[58, 59] The clinical correlation of CGRP actions
at the level of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis is relevant as well. The brainstem has a key role in the pathophysiology Crizotinib research buy of migraine.[60, 61] Brainstem stimulation causes activation of the trigeminovascular system, resulting in peripheral CGRP release and neurogenic inflammation (described earlier).[62, 63] Furthermore, activation of the brainstem is associated with altered perception termed allodynia (a condition in which nonpainful stimulation is perceived as painful) as well as with the development of second- and third-order neuronal sensitization.[64, 65] Accordingly, if we understand migraine as the combined result of altered perception of stimuli that are usually not painful, as well as the activation of 上海皓元 a feed-forward neurovascular dilator mechanism in the first (ophthalmic) division of the trigeminal nerve, we realize that CGRP is involved in the pathophysiology of migraine both centrally and peripherally. CGRP and its receptors are widely distributed across other parts of the CNS as well, in areas that are relevant to pain and in areas that may not be, such as the cerebellum.[67, 68] The function of CGRP in these areas is not well understood. Studies have suggested that CGRP
is expressed in areas that could explain migraine-related photophobia. In a model of transgenic mice, light-aversive behavior was greatly enhanced by intracerebroventricular injection of CGRP and blocked by coadministration of the CGRP-RA olcegepant. Finally, CGRP seems to be important in determining neuronal plasticity and synapse formation. This is either due to its direct actions on neurons or its indirect actions on the glia via its modulatory actions.71-73 In summary, CGRP and its receptors are largely expressed in neurons and glia, both peripherally and centrally. As discussed later, this broad expression has relevance for drug development. Pain improvement can be achieved by blocking CGRP peripherally, centrally, or both, and brain penetration may not be essential for the analgesic properties of CGRP antagonists.