Conclusions: Complications selleck chemical are rare during EUS-guided drainage of PFC and can be managed successfully in most patients. “
“Hypoxia has been shown to have a role in the pathogenesis of several forms of liver disease. The hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are a family of evolutionarily conserved transcriptional
regulators that affect a homeostatic response to low oxygen tension and have been identified as key mediators of angiogenesis, inflammation, and metabolism. In this review we summarize the evidence for a role of HIFs across a range of hepatic pathophysiology. We describe regulation of the HIFs and review investigations that demonstrate a role for HIFs in Dasatinib clinical trial the development of liver fibrosis, activation of innate immune pathways, hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as other liver diseases in both human disease as well as murine models. (HEPATOLOGY 2012;) The liver has a unique anatomical and functional niche in the body that profoundly affects its physiology and pathophysiology, including its oxygen homeostasis. Afferent blood flow to the liver derives from both highly oxygenated blood in the hepatic artery
as well as oxygen-depleted blood in the hepatic portal vein. Furthermore, the directional flow of mixed oxygenated and deoxygenated blood toward the central vein of the hepatic lobule creates a physiological oxygen gradient.1 This gradient has been reported to result in oxygen tensions from about 60-65 mmHg in periportal blood, falling to about 30-35 mmHg in perivenous portions
of the liver parenchyma; by comparison, physiological arterial oxygen concentration in most other body tissues is about 74-104 mmHg, and venous oxygen concentration is 34-46 mmHg.1 Hypoxia has profound consequences for tissues of an aerobic organism. In recent decades, our knowledge of the homeostatic response to hypoxia has increased to molecular genetic mechanisms. The hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are a family of heterodimeric Dichloromethane dehalogenase transcription factors that act as master regulators of a homeostatic transcriptional response to hypoxia in virtually all cells and tissues. Active HIF consists of an alpha subunit and a beta subunit. Three alpha subunits, termed HIF1α, HIF2α, and HIF3α, have been described in humans, mice, and rats; all bind to a common β subunit named, alternatively, HIF1β, or the aryl-hydrocarbon-nuclear receptor translocator [ARNT].2 Active HIF is termed by its (1)alpha subunit; hence, HIF1 is the active transcription factor consisting of HIF1α and ARNT, HIF2 is the dimer of HIF2α and ARNT, etc. HIF1 and HIF2 are the major hypoxia-inducible factors in humans, mice, and rats. Far less is known about the function of HIF3.2 Posttranslational degradation by the proteasome is a major pathway of HIF regulation.