Our observations of a possible importation of currently rare serotypes in Europe may have implications for public health. Migration to Italy will go on increasing over the coming years and migrants will be ever more included in social and working settings. The pattern of circulating N. meningitidis in healthy carriers and of meningococci related to invasive
infection could change in a few years. Instead, monitoring antimicrobial R428 datasheet resistance of meningococci does not seem a public health issue. Neisseria meningitidis does not appear to be particularly efficient in developing resistance to antimicrobial agents and few cases of resistance among meningococci have been recorded worldwide. Immunization strategies against meningococcal
disease may change in the near future. Quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines containing the polysaccharides from serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135 meningococci conjugated to a protein carrier have been available since 2005 in the United States. Multivalent conjugate vaccines offer the potential to broaden population protection against meningococcal disease beyond the more widely used monovalent serogroup C conjugate vaccines, while additionally providing superior efficacy compared to unconjugated quadrivalent vaccines. Surveys among the selleck chemicals llc general population to evaluate the meningocci carriage and the surveillance of invasive meningococcal disease to monitor the introduction in Europe of previously sporadic serogroups, as Y and W135, will support the introduction of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines in the immunization schedule for adolescents and high-risk adults. The authors state that they have no conflicts of interest to declare. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the paper. Neither
the authors nor their institutions received any funding for this study. “
“As a consequence of inhibition of the hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 isozyme, treatment with HIV protease inhibitors can result in significant drug−drug interactions. selleckchem One noteworthy interaction is between protease inhibitors and inhaled or intranasal corticosteroids. This interaction can result in adrenal insufficiency and iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome (with symptoms such as rapid weight gain, obesity, facial hirsutism and swelling), as well as hypertension, osteoporosis and decreased CD4 cell count. In this paper, we review and unite pharmacokinetic data, case reports and current research regarding this drug−drug interaction in order to suggest options for the clinical management of HIV-positive patients requiring treatment with protease inhibitors and inhaled or intranasal corticosteroids.