Overall, the mean scores on all of the subscales and the total score in the HIV-positive group were significantly higher than those in the control group (t=6.45–16.09; P<0.001). The total score for the HIV-positive group was >160, which suggests psychological distress. Selumetinib clinical trial In particular, the mean
scores on the obsessive–compulsive, depression, anxiety and anger/hostility subscales for the HIV-positive group were higher than the threshold score (2.0) (Table 2). Both male and female HIV-positive participants had significantly higher scores and mean subscale scores than their control counterparts (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in SCL-90 scores between the male and female control groups (P>0.05). In the HIV-positive group, female subjects had significantly higher mean depression and anxiety subscale scores than male subjects (P<0.05), and these were the highest among the mean scores of all subscales for both male and female subjects (Table 3). The percentage of HIV-positive participants with mean subscale scores >2.0 was higher for female than for male HIV-positive participants (P<0.05 for obsessive–compulsive disorder, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety and psychoticism; P>0.05 for hostility, paranoid
ideation and somatization) (Fig. 1). The average number of subscales with mean scores click here >2.0 was 4.1 for female HIV-positive individuals and 3.7 for male HIV-positive individuals. The four most frequent types of psychological distress were depression
(66.7% for male HIV-positive individuals and 84.6% for female HIV-positive individuals), anxiety (58.6% for male HIV-positive individuals and 63.5% for female HIV-positive individuals), obsessive–compulsiveness (53.1% for male HIV-positive individuals and 55.8% for female HIV-positive individuals) and anger/hostility (52.5% for male HIV-positive individuals and 51.9% for female HIV-positive individuals). The most common psychosocial experiences of HIV-positive participants regarding HIV infection were fear (36.9%) and helplessness (31.8%). Overall, 90.2% of participants were reluctant to tell others about their HIV infection for fear of their family members being discriminated against (42.5%) or being excluded (26.9%) or abandoned (23.3%). However, the HIV-positive status of the people studied Enzalutamide manufacturer in this paper was known in their communities. The main stresses in their daily lives were discrimination from their acquaintances (colleagues, friends and neighbours; 38.8%) and potential job loss and reduced quality of life (36.9%), while the financial burden of the disease was not a main stress of daily life for these HIV-positive individuals (only 10.3% reported financial burdens). After discovering their HIV-positive status, most members of their communities, including neighbours, colleagues, doctors and family members, showed negative attitudes towards the HIV-positive participant. More than 80% of people showed alienation, coldness, aversion or fear.