01; Figure 3A).The sympathetic activity is showed in the Figure 3B, demonstrating that low-intensity and moderate exercise training increases the triggering rate of the greater splanchnic nerve by two-fold in both the NL and SL rats compared to their respective no-exercised RSL3 clinical trial groups (p < .05). No change was observed in the number of greater splanchnic nerve spikes in the SL-N-EXE rats when compared to the NL-N-EXE rats
(Figure 3B). The representative records of each nerve discharge, which illustrate the data for each experimental group, are given in the Figure 3C. Figure 3 Electrical activity of the autonomic nervous system. All values are expressed as the mean ± SEM of 10–18 rats of each experimental group. The vagus (A) and greater splanchnic nerve (B) electrical activity. Symbols on this website the lines as well as letters on the bars represents the statistical difference by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test among groups. *p < .01 for SL-N-EXE v.s. NL-N-EXE; #p < .01 for each one of SL-EXE group v.s. SL-N-EXE; §p < .05 for each
one of NL-EXE group v.s. NL-N-EXE. Representative records of each nerve discharge, which illustrate the data for each experimental group, are given in the Figure 3 C. Discussion As expected, a reduction in litter size during the suckling phase induced obesity in adult rats, as indicated by increased bw and increased fat tissue accumulation. Confirming data reporting that this experimental model of obesity is caused by the overfeeding selleck compound behavior of young rats during lactation , this metabolic imprinting model displays glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, hyperphagia among others important metabolic disturbances [6, 31]. The afferent vagus projects
from the periphery to the nucleus of the solitary tract in the brainstem, a brain region situated in the dorsal vagal complex that functions as a port of entry for visceral information to the brain. Interestingly, PIK3C2G the incoming peripheral signals about glucose levels can be modified by central glucose-sensing neurons at nearly every level of the central nervous system , and populations of neurons in the ventromedial and lateral hypothalamus are reported to increase their firing rates in response to the application of glucose . The balance of the ANS is important to maintain constant glycemia. Overall, the parasympathetic stimulates insulin secretion, whereas the sympathetic inhibits it, which can produces decreases and increases in glycemia that are dependent on the glucose demand of cells, skeletal muscles and fat tissue. The data of the current research reveal, for the first time, that higher vagal nerve activity is observed in obese rats induced by early overfeeding.