, 1995) Sequence entries, primary analyses, and ORF searches wer

, 1995). Sequence entries, primary analyses, and ORF searches were performed using blast from the National Center for Biotechnology (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.). Pairwise and multiple sequence alignments were performed using the clustalw program (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/). Coding sequences of the three peroxiredoxin-like proteins were amplified by PCR

with the primers listed in Fig. S2, and were then cloned into pET-15b. The proteins were purified according to the manufacturer’s instruction (Qiagen). The elutes containing the target proteins were exchanged for buffer A (50 mM Tris-HCl, 50 mM NaCl, 5% glycerol) by ultrafiltration, and stored at −80 °C until used. Protein purity was examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and quantified using BKM120 clinical trial the standard BCA method (Ding et al., 2010). Peroxidase activity and kinetic parameters were determined by following the disappearance of the peroxide substrate and NADPH. The reaction mixture contained 100 mM HEPES, 5 mM DTT, 3 μM purified Prx enzymes, and different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). At the time intervals indicated, 200 μL of trichloroacetic acid (26.3%, v/v) was added to stop the reaction. The amount of peroxide remaining unreduced was examined as a red-colored

ferrithiocyanate complex formed by the addition of 100 μL 2.5 M KSCN and 10 mM Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2 to a 700 μL reaction mixture, the absorbance of which was then measured at 475 nm (Jeong et al., 2000; Baker & Poole, 2003; Wen et al., 2007). An allelic isocitrate dehydrogenase inhibitor exchange vector pAK0 was created by inserting the kanamycin resistance cassette into the gene encoding resistance to ampicillin of pWM91 (Metcalf et al., 1996; Komeili et al., 2004). The gentamicin coding sequences amplified from pBBR1MCS-5 were

ligated into the multiple cloning sites of pAK0, generating pAK1. About 1000 bases upstream Fludarabine cost and downstream of amb0664, amb3876, and amb2684, respectively, were amplified using the primers listed in Table S1. The amplified fragments were ligated into pAK1 flanking the antibiotic resistance gene to generate pAK1-0664, pAK1-3876, and pAK1-2684. Plasmids pAK1-0664, pAK1-3876, and pAK1-2684 were conjugated into wild-type M. magneticum AMB-1 using WM3064 (Komeili et al., 2004) as the donor strain to generate mutant strains AMB0101, AMB0102, and AMB0103. To select for a single gene mutant strain, gentamicin-resistant transconjugants obtained from plates were screened for kanamycin sensitivity to identify potential deletion mutants. All mutants lacking prx were verified by PCR. A 1124-bp fragment from the genomic region 3414655–3415837 corresponding to a large intergenic region was amplified and ligated into pAK0 to obtain pAK3 for genomic integration. Expression cassettes for Prxs with their own promoter were amplified from the genome DNA, ligated into pHAHIS304, and digested with XhoI and SacI to fuse a hemagglutinin sequence at the C-terminus of Prxs.

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