8c,d) In the present study, the serum levels of TNF-α, which is

8c,d). In the present study, the serum levels of TNF-α, which is an inflammatory cytokine, were studied in the CLP model in the sera of rats (Fig. 9). Levels of TNF-α were found to be increased in

the CLP group when compared with the sham-operated animals, as seen in Fig. 9 (P < 0·01). In contrast to the CLP group, the serum levels of TNF-α were found to be decreased by the administration of SLD in septic rats (CLP + SLD groups) (P < 0·01). As shown in Fig. 9, administration of SLD alone in sham-operated rats did not affect the serum levels of TNF-α when compared with the non-treated sham group. In this present study, we determined that sildenafil has markedly protective effects against CLP, attenuating kidney and lung tissue injury, especially in the vascular bed, and decreasing oxidative stress, as confirmed RAD001 order by biochemical assays and histopathological study. This protection is due primarily

to the inhibition of oxidative stress, which is one of the important mechanisms of organ injury of polymicrobial sepsis, and inhibition of the degree of inflammation, as revealed clearly by our finding see more that pretreatment with sildenafil increased GSH and decreased the activation of MPO and LPO and levels of SOD. We observed a significant decrease in LPO and MPO and a decrease in SOD activity in the sildenafil-treated CLP rats compared with the vehicle-treated sham-operated rats, demonstrating the protective capacity of sildenafil Tenofovir in septic rats. Another result of our study is that sildenafil treatment improves inflammatory cells that accumulate

in the lungs and result in lung injury in septic rats. According to our histopathological analysis, significant differences were found in terms of inflammation scores between the sepsis group and the other groups, except in the CLP + sildenafil 10 mg group. The CLP + sildenafil 20 mg/kg group had the lowest inflammation score in our study. Koksal et al. [50] reported that in caecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis, increased oxidative stress in tissue in parallel with plasma are important mechanisms due to the output of free radicals [50]. Moreover, according to Sakaguchi et al. [51], endotoxin injection resulted in lipid peroxide formation and membrane damage in experimental animals, causing a decreased level of free radical scavengers or quenchers [51]. ROS have been assumed to play a role in the induction of many proinflammatory cytokines and mediators important in producing the acute inflammatory responses associated with sepsis [12]. In our previous studies we determined that kidney, heart, lung and liver tissue exhibited oxidative stress in septic rats [40–42]. The proinflammatory effects of ROS include endothelial damage, formation of chemotactic factors, neutrophil reinforcement, cytokine release and mitochondrial injury [14–16], which all contribute to free radical overload and to oxidant–anti-oxidant imbalance.

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