98 Fakioglu et al.95 reported that HSV-2 down-regulates SLPI suggesting that this is a mechanism for immune evasion. Human Papilloma Virus can be separated into high- and low-risk HPVs depending on their oncogenic potential. Persistent high-risk HPV16 and HPV18 infection are the major causes of cervical cancer. Low-risk HPV types are associated with benign ano-genital warts. Human α-defensins 1–3 and human α-defensin 5 inhibit sexually transmitted HPV infection.99 This may explain why a majority of women infected with HPV clear the infection with time. Another antimicrobial peptide, MIP3α/CCL20, is GDC-0980 order decreased in squamous intraepithelial lesions caused
by HPV16.100 Whether high levels of MIP3α have a direct protective effect against HPV remains to be determined. In addition, Duffy et al.101 have observed that the HPV E6 oncoprotein is able to down-regulate Elafin, perhaps as an immune escape mechanism. Neisseria gonorrhea is responsible for 700,000 infections in women in the USA each year.102 In women, untreated Neisseria infection can result in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can lead to ectopic pregnancy and an increased risk of infertility. We recently demonstrated that epithelial cell secretions from upper and lower FRT significantly inhibit Neisseria.92 In other studies, Neisseria has been described to be highly sensitive to LL-37.103Neisseria has also been shown
to induce HD5 and 6 which in turn enhances HIV replication, underlining the significance of Neisseria as a co-factor in increased HIV transmission.20 Chlamydia infection is a known cause of Vismodegib PID, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy because of scarring of the Fallopian tubes.104Chlamydia is also
a co-factor for increased risk of HIV acquisition.105 Several antimicrobials play a role in Chlamydia infection. A decrease in SLPI levels in vaginal secretions is related to infection of the lower reproductive tract by C. trachomatis.106 This implies that reduced levels of SLPI in the lower FRT may increase susceptibility to C. trachomatis infection. Elafin expression Cobimetinib is upregulated in oviduct epithelial cells infected with C. trachomatis, suggesting that Elafin plays a role in innate immunity response to chlamydial infection.46 High levels of HBD1 and 2 have been observed in CVL of women infected with Chlamydia.107 Specifically, HNP2 has been shown to inhibit C. trachomatis.108 Candida is described as a commensal microbe in the vagina because of its presence in up to 20% of` healthy asymptomatic women. However, perturbations of the normal vaginal ecosystem can cause overgrowth of Candida and result in vulvovaginal candidiasis or yeast infection; it affects 75% of all women at least once during their lifetime, and also causes recurrent infections. We tested the effects of upper and lower FRT epithelial cell secretions on both the non-pathogenic yeast and the pathogenic hyphal forms of Candida.