A further analysis was made

A further analysis was made Doxorubicin in vivo between the different combinations of specific KIR genes with HLA-C1 or C2 (Fig. 1). It is interesting to note that the frequencies of ‘2DL2/3 with C1’ in PTB were increased compared with control group. The reason for making this association was to explain the

effect of genetic variation at the KIR locus in combination with HLA-C which shows disease susceptibility. Subsequently, we analysed the specific KIR genes with HLA-C ligands. Studies performed here showed that the inhibitory KIR2DL1 and KIR2DL3 were present in nearly all individuals. In contrast, their activating counterparts, KIR2DS1 and KIR2DS3 were observed in only a fraction of the samples. KIR2DS3 and KIR2DS1 were more frequent PI3K Inhibitor Library in PTB than in the control group. Therefore, we determined the frequencies of KIR2DS3 with Cw*08 (HLA-C group 1 allele that is increased in PTB in our study) and KIR2DS1 with Cw*04 (HLA-C group 2 allele) or other HLA-C alleles (Fig. 2). Individuals with ‘no KIR2DS3 and no Cw*08’ appeared to be relatively protected (16% in PTB versus 47.5% in controls), corresponding with an increased frequency of individuals with ‘KIR2DS3 and Cw*08’ in PTB (29.5%) than controls (8.5%). Individuals with no ‘Cw*04 and no KIR2DS1’ appeared to be relatively protected (25% in PTB versus 66.5% in controls). KIR2DS1 was increased significantly in the patients group when HLA-C2 alleles (including

Cw*04) were absent. However, in the presence of group 2 HLA-C alleles (excluding Cw*04), there was no significant difference of KIR2DS1 between the two groups. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis is an intracellular pathogen that can persist within the host. Continuous infection and antibody production can lead to chronic or fatal disease. The important point for the development of immunity against PTB involves the engagement of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes [15]. Increasing evidences suggested that KIR gene diversity Sclareol determines

the susceptibility to infectious diseases through sending inhibitory or activating signal [16, 17]. The imbalance between activating and inhibitory KIRs may affect the activation of immune cells, contributing to the pathogenesis of diseases. KIR locus is so diverse. For example, there are many different gene combinations especially in the telomeric part of the locus. KIRs display extensive diversity in gene content, allelic polymorphisms and haplotypic level. In general, most KIR haplotypes belong to one of two groups, termed A and B. Our results indicated that individuals with A/B genotype have the potential to provide a pathogenesis of PTB. The infection of PTB reflects the balance between bacillus and host defence mechanisms. Recent studies support that innate immunity is relevant in tuberculosis. Each stage of the host response to M. tuberculosis is under genetic control, including the induction of the T cell response [18].

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