albicans biofilms grown in different biofilm model systems. Biofilm formation on silicone progressed in a similar fashion in both in vitro model systems, although at later stages (72 h and 144 h), significantly lower cell selleck kinase inhibitor numbers were obtained in the MTP than in the CDC reactor (p < 0.05). This is likely due to a continuous flow of fresh medium in the CDC reactor, absent G418 supplier in the MTP. In the in vivo model, cell numbers were significantly lower than in the two in vitro models
(p < 0.05). Host factors and lack of direct accessibility to nutrients likely contribute to this phenomenon. In the RHE model, cell numbers were similar to those observed in the two in vitro models after 1 h. However, cell numbers increased more slowly during biofilm formation in the RHE model, which is likely due to the lack of direct accessibility to nutrients. In order to survive and grow, C. albicans needs to invade and destroy epithelial cells. Nevertheless, after 48 h cell numbers
were similar to those observed in two in vitro models, indicating that a high-density biofilm was obtained. Green et al. previously showed that C. albicans inoculated on RHE forms a biofilm-like structure over the epithelial layer . Selleckchem Omipalisib Furthermore, we observed no considerable tissue damage in the early stages of biofilm formation in the RHE model, whereas further biofilm growth led to a gradual increase in tissue destruction. Similar results were obtained in a previous study . After 48 h, we found that the RHE tissue was almost completely degraded. Using real-time PCR, the expression of HWP1 and of genes belonging to the ALS, SAP, LIP and PLB gene families was detected at all time points during biofilm growth in all model systems tested. It was previously shown that ALS, HWP1, SAP and LIP genes are expressed in the RHE model [21, 22, 24, 25] and the expression of PLB2 but
not PLB1 has also been detected in this model system . However, the latter authors used reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) , whereas we used the more sensitive real-time PCR technique, and this probably explains why we were also able to detect PLB1 expression. The expression of ALS1, ALS3 and HWP1 has Etofibrate already been observed in biofilms associated with abiotic surfaces [26–28, 31]. In the present study, we showed that not only ALS1, ALS3 and HWP1, but all the members of the ALS, SAP, LIP and PLB gene families were expressed in biofilms at all time points in all model systems tested. Together, we demonstrated that genes encoding adhesins and genes encoding extracellular hydrolases are constitutively expressed in biofilms grown on mucosal surfaces as well as in biofilms grown on abiotic surfaces in vitro and in vivo. To identify model-dependent and -independent gene expression in C. albicans biofilms, the fold expression (expression level) of each gene was compared between the various model systems.