At 48 and 72 hrs pi, a significant increase in total protein conc

At 48 and 72 hrs pi, a significant increase in total protein concentration was observed for F. indicus kept in 5, 15 and 35 g/L (P < 0.05) (Fig. 1a). The hemolymph total carbohydrate concentration increased significantly in shrimp that had been transferred to 5 and

35 g/L at 72 hrs pi (P < 0.05) (Fig. 1b). Total lipid concentrations increased buy INK 128 significantly for shrimp that had been transferred to 5, 15 and 35 g/L at 120 hrs pi (P < 0.05) (Fig. 1c). Based on linear regression analysis of these biochemical variables, salinity has the greatest influence over the total lipid content of WSSV-challenged F. indicus hemolymph at 15 g/L, followed by 5 and 35 g/L (R2 values 0.8886, 0.7983, and 0.7665, respectively) (Table 2). On the other hand, linear regression analysis showed that salinity has less influence over total protein and total carbohydrate content of hemolymph sampled over regular time

intervals. The lowest PCI-32765 chemical structure THC of WSSV was observed in 15–35 g/L at 120 hrs pi. The THC of F. indicus decreased significantly during the first 48 hrs, gradually recovered to normal levels at 72 hr, and then decreased significantly at 98 and 120 hrs pi. The THC decreased significantly in shrimp that had been transferred to 35 g/L after 72 hrs and increased significantly in shrimp transferred to 5 and 15 g/L, after 24 hrs (Fig. 2a). The THC decreased significantly in shrimp that had been transferred to 5–35 g/L after 120 hrs. PO activity increased significantly in shrimp with WSSV kept in 25 g/L compared to 5, 15 and 35 g/L pi (P < 0.05), reaching a maximum at 120 hrs (P < 0.05). Ater 24–72 hrs, a decline in PO activity was found in experimental shrimps incubated at salinities of 5, 15 and 35 g/L (Fig. 2b). Figure 3A depicts the increase in respiratory burst in the experimental groups exposed to all experimental salinities. After 120 hrs exposure, the SOD activity was significantly decreased at the lower salinities of 5, 15 and 35 g/L. ALP activity significantly increased after 72 hrs in shrimp kept at each

salinity level. After 72 hrs, a significant increase in ALP and ACP activities was observed in shrimp kept at all salinity levels. The activities declined after 72–120 hrs post-challenge at all salinities. The highest ALP and ACP activities Etoposide were observed for shrimp kept in 35 g/L after 72 hrs and the lowest for shrimp kept at each of the salinity levels (Fig. 3b,c). According to linear regression analysis, THC of hemolymph of WSSV-challenged animals did not show any trend to increase with duration of exposure. Similarly, SOD, ALP and ACP activities had no strong positive correlation with time. PO activity appeared to have a strong positive correlation with salinity, whereas at 15 g/L salinity, WSSV-challenged F. indicus hemolymph recorded the highest R2 value of 0.8043. This indicates that PO activity was significantly regulated at 15 g/L throughout the experimental period (Table 2).

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