(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3549608]“
“The selleck compound effect of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the stability of the mechanical and electrical properties
of recycled waste rubber was experimentally investigated. The stress-strain curves of the composites were studied. The results show that the toughness, the area under the stress-strain curve, of the recycled rubber increased monotonically as a result of the addition of CNTs. The modulus of the nanocomposites increased by 28 times when only 5 wt % CNTs was added to the recycled rubber matrix. The effects of the cyclic fatigue and hysteresis for the composites were also examined. The strain energy density, dissipation energy, and linear damage accumulation versus the number of cycles are discussed for all of the samples. The analysis of the results showed that the strain energy density increased by 15 times at a CNT concentration of 5 wt %. The electrical properties were measured for all of the samples. The results indicate that the addition of CNTs to the recycled
rubber improved its electrical conductivity by more than two orders. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci 121: 502-507, 2011″
“Background: The risk of HIV-1 infection is high among breast-fed children in sub-Saharan Africa. Monitoring the nutritional status can provide useful information to determine the effect of HIV infection and breast-feeding on child growth and development. We longitudinally assessed the nutritional status and determined its association PD0325901 cost with HIV infection and breast-feeding among Malawian children.
Methods: We analyzed data from 2 clinical trials to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Malawi. These trials were conducted during 2000-2003 before the current guidelines were implemented to breast-feed exclusively during the first 6 months
and wean thereafter. The nutritional status of children was measured up to age 24 months, using z-scores. Age-specific differences in length-for-age (L/A), weight-for-age (W/A), and weight-for-length (W/L) were compared stratifying by gender and HIV infection status. Multivariable Gilteritinib models examined the mean change in z-scores controlling for breast-feeding and other factors.
Results: In this analysis, 1589 children were included. Boys had significantly lower L/A scores and became stunted (z-score -<2 standard deviations) earlier than girls. HIV-infected children had significantly lower mean L/A and W/A z-scores than HIV-uninfected children and became stunted and underweight at an earlier age. In multivariable analysis not being breast-fed and being HIV infected were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with decreases in mean L/A, W/A, and W/L z-scores.
Conclusions: This study shows the impact of infant HIV infection on growth and supports the critical importance of breast-feeding.