Cells from LPS- and CpG ODN-containing cultures were also analyse

Cells from LPS- and CpG ODN-containing cultures were also analysed for the expression of the pDC marker PDCA. The majority

of cells displaying the CD11clo/MHCIIlo phenotype also expressed PDCA (Fig. 2f). Taken together, these data suggest FDA-approved Drug Library ic50 that under the influence of LPS and CpG ODN, progenitor cells preferentially differentiate towards the production of pDC and away from producing conventional DCs (cDCs). Because we had shown that TLR ligands were able to modulate the differentiation of DCs from murine bone marrow in vitro, it seemed likely that signalling via TLRs would be implicated in these effects. It is well known that, with the exception of TLR3, TLRs use the adaptor molecule MyD88 to initiate signalling cascades;5 it was therefore important to establish whether MyD88 AZD1208 supplier was required for the induction of changes in haematopoiesis observed in vitro. To assess this, bone marrow from MyD88+/+ and MyD88−/− mice was cultured in the presence of GM-CSF, with or without LPS or the influenza viruses Jap, X31 or PR8. The production of BMDC was determined by assessing the surface

expression of CD11c and MHCII using flow cytometry. The results (Fig. 3a) show that the presence of LPS and the influenza viruses reduced the production of BMDCs in cultures of MyD88+/+ bone marrow, as observed previously for BALB/c bone marrow cells. The same reduction in BMDC production was observed when bone marrow cells from MyD88−/− mice were stimulated with influenza viruses. By contrast, when MyD88−/− bone marrow cells were stimulated

with LPS, a large proportion of cells expressed a CD11c+/MHCII+ phenotype. Signalling via TLR3 is known to involve a second adaptor molecule, TRIF, and TLR4 signalling can also involve this adaptor.6 The involvement of TRIF in the modulation of BMDC production was therefore investigated. To achieve this, bone marrow from TRIF-deficient mice and their wild-type littermates was cultured Teicoplanin in the presence of GM-CSF, with or without Poly I, Poly I:C, LPS, CpG ODN, Jap, X31 or PR8, and the generation of CD11c+/MHCII+ BMDCs was monitored. The results (Fig. 3b) demonstrate that treatment of TRIF+/+ bone marrow cultures with these agents resulted in a dramatic reduction in the production of CD11c+/MHCII+ BMDCs, as observed for BALB/c bone marrow cells. A similar reduction in BMDC production was observed when TRIF−/− bone marrow cultures were stimulated with CpG ODN or influenza viruses, indicating that signalling induced by these ligands was independent of TRIF. However, when bone marrow from TRIF−/− mice was cultured with LPS, a reduction in the number of BMDCs was observed, although this was less pronounced than that observed in TRIF+/+ bone marrow cultures under similar conditions, suggesting that the effects of LPS were partially dependent on TRIF.

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