Clinical Chemistry 2009,55(4):611–622 PubMedCrossRef Authors’ con

Clinical Chemistry 2009,55(4):611–622.PubMedCrossRef Authors’ contributions IJ: conceived the study and designed the experiments, performed oligonucleotide designs and statistical analyses, interpreted experimental

results and wrote the manuscript; RAH: participated in the design of the experiments, carried out and interpreted the experimental Dibutyryl-cAMP concentration work, and helped to draft the manuscript; JMB: helped carrying out experiments; BvR: coordinated the work. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is a human-restricted pathogen that causes enteric fever or typhoid. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is considered a broad host range pathogen that causes gastroenteritis in several warm-blooded animals such as calves and humans, but produces a typhoid-like systemic infection in mice [1–3]. Although the mechanism by which serovar Typhimurium causes gastroenteritis is well studied, less is known about the pathogenesis of the serovar Typhi. One limitation to the study of typhoid fever is the absence of a good animal model. For this reason, although the S. Typhimurium – mouse model has been used

to infer S. Acadesine price Typhi important virulence Caspase Inhibitor VI ic50 mechanisms by the expression of S. Typhi genes in S. Typhimurium, the information derived from infection of mice is limited mainly because the virulence factors are tested in an heterologous system. Furthermore, S. Typhimurium does not cause typhoid in humans, suggesting that genetic differences between both serovars are crucial for disease development. The evolution of a broad host pathogen, such as S. Typhimurium, to a host-restricted pathogen, such as S. Typhi, might have occurred by (i) the acquisition of genetic material through horizontal gene transfer, (ii) genome degradation (i.e.,

the loss of genetic information by deletion or pseudogene formation) or (iii) a combination of ADP ribosylation factor both of these mechanisms [4, 5]. The acquisition and persistence of DNA segments containing genes with pathogenicity or virulence functions (i.e., pathogenicity islands) will depend on the advantage they confer to the pathogen infectious cycle. Thus, bacteria with a great ability to colonise different environments, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, generally have larger genomes than those that survive in restricted niches [6]. The phenomenon by which a microorganism becomes adapted to its host involves the loss of genetic functions resulting in pseudogene generation, a process termed “”reductive evolution”". This process has been observed in human-adapted pathogens such as Shigella flexneri, Mycobacterium leprae and Salmonella Typhi [7, 8].

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