falciparum infection, cytokine Epigenetics Compound Library mouse profiles and their relative balance, not single pro- and anti-inflammatory T helper and T regulatory cytokines, may mediate protective immunity and disease severity . With regard to the regulatory type IL-10, the Th2-type anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-13 disclosed similar levels and dynamics; it was enhanced in MM and SM infants and declined rapidly with parasite clearance following treatment. In 1–4-year-old children with acute uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, increased IL-13 levels
were found , which decreased up to day 2 post-treatment. IL-13 provides protection from LPS-induced lethal endotoxaemia similar to but independent from IL-10, and IL-13 can be considered as an immune modulator which might be beneficial in the treatment of septic shock . As revealed recently, IL-13 mediated phagocytosis of P. falciparum-parasitized erythrocytes by alternative activated monocytes , and resistance to severe malaria through altered IL-13 production may be associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism in the IL-13 promoter . As a cytokine with dual regulatory capacity, IL-27 will first initiate
Th1-type IFN-γ responses and promote IL-10 synthesis by regulatory T cells, then attenuate inflammatory Th2 and Th17 cells  and depress proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines . IL-27R-deficient mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzi or Leishmania donovani first controlled parasite replication, but then developed lethal proinflammatory cytokine responses
Selleckchem FK506 and succumbed to infection , and such mice infected with the intestinal helminth Trichuris muris developed an increased production of Th2-associated cytokines and were able to clear intestinal worms very early . IL-27R-deficient oxyclozanide mice were susceptible to P. berghei infection and developed Th1-mediated immune responses which, despite efficient parasite clearance, led to severe liver pathology . The regulatory function of IL-27 via the induction of IL-10 and suppression of IL-17 secretion may help to prevented early manifestations of malarial disease, but IL-27 alone may not suffice to prevent chronic infection and severe malaria. The capacity of IL-27 in suppressing Th17-type responses may be critical for pathology prevention; IL-17F levels were similarly high in MM, SM and NEG infants, and the unchanged IL-17F levels post-parasite clearance suggested that IL-17F may not be implicated in malaria progression or regression. Enhanced levels of Th17-associated cytokines have been detected in psoriasis, arthritis, asthma and bacterial and fungal infections , and Th17 cells might breach the blood–brain barrier and infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma , thereby inducing the production of other proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines which will attract effector cells and provoke tissue inflammation.