In summary, our data suggest that RWE-stimulated enhancement of I

In summary, our data suggest that RWE-stimulated enhancement of IL-1β production in LPS-treated THP-1 cells is mainly the consequence of the substantially increased pro-IL-1β expression and elevated caspase-1 activation. The induced gene transcription and expression

of pro-IL-1β together with key inflammasome components (caspase-1 and NLRP3) is dependent on the ROS production by the RWE-associated NADPH oxidases. Nevertheless, it is important to note that pollen grains and sub-pollen particles are complex EPZ-6438 biological packages composed of many components that can alter the functions of human cells. However, the observed interplay of RWE and LPS suggests a critical role of bacterial endotoxin in the pollen-induced allergic reactions that should be taken into account in designing treatments for allergic airway inflammations. The work was supported in part by the TÁMOP 4.2.1/B-09/1/KONV-2010-0007 project (to J.T. and A.B.), the TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0023 project (to S.B., J.T. and A.V.) the TÁMOP-4.2.2/B-10/1-2010-0024 project (to A.V.), the UD Faculty of Medicine Research Fund – Bridging Fund (to S.B.) and the Hungarian Science and Research Fund (K-73347 to A.B.). The project is co-financed by the European Union and the European Social Fund. S.B. is

a receiver of Lajos Szodoray Post-doctoral Fellowship and Janos Bolyai Post-doctoral Fellowship. The authors declare no competing interests. “
“Twelve Vibrio cholerae isolates with genes for a type III secretion system (T3SS) were detected among 110 environmental and 14 clinical isolates. T3SS-related genes were distributed among the various serogroups and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

of NotI-digested genomes showed genetic diversity in these strains. However, the restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles of the T3SS-related genes had similar patterns. Additionally, naturally competent T3SS-negative V. cholerae incorporated the ca. 47 kb gene cluster of T3SS, which had been integrated into a site on the chromosome by recombination. Therefore, it is suggested that horizontal gene transfer of T3SS-related genes occurs among V. cholerae in natural ecosystems. Vibrio cholerae live ubiquitously in natural aquatic environments, such as rivers, estuaries and coastal Phospholipase D1 waters. There more than 200 recognized serogroups, among which serogroup O1 and O139 strains are known to produce CT and cause epidemic cholera [1]. Many serogroups of non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae can also cause mild or severe diarrhea; certain of these strains possess the ctxAB gene encoding CT [2-5], whereas others do not produce CT. The virulence determinants of non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae without ctxAB have not been well characterized. Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria have a T3SS that plays an important role in their pathogenesis [6]. Among Vibrio species, the genes for T3SS were first identified in V.

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