Initially, the ATP pools were similar, at about 2 nmol (mg protei

Initially, the ATP pools were similar, at about 2 nmol (mg protein)-1. Thereafter, the ATP pool remained similar in the LA culture, while the concentration increased 3-4-fold (P < 0.05 from 40 min onwards) in cultures to which no LA was added. The acyl CoA pools were measured only after 20 min, at which time the ATP pool had not yet changed significantly (P > 0.05). In control cultures, the highest pool sizes of short-chain acyl CoAs were of acetyl CoA and butyryl CoA, followed by propionyl CoA. Screening Library Crotonyl CoA and acetoacetyl CoA were present at much lower concentrations, 10 pmol (mg protein)-1 or less. β-Hydroxybutyryl

CoA was not determined by the methods used. All CoA pools, except acetoacetyl CoA, were decreased STA-9090 order by >96% (P < 0.001) in LA-containing cultures. Figure 6 Influence of LA on ATP pools of B. fibrisolvens JW11 after 50% inoculation into fresh medium. LA (black circle), no LA (open circle). Results are means and SD from three separate cultures. Table 2 Influence Selleckchem Belinostat of LA on acyl CoA pools of B. fibrisolvens JW11 20 min after inoculation

into fresh medium.   Acyl CoA concentration (pmol mg protein-1) Acyl CoA No addition 0.2 mg ml -1 LA   Mean SD Mean SD Acetyl 375 158 17 5 Propionyl 53 14 2 1 Isobutyryl 16 4 0 0 Butyryl 213 77 10 2 Crotonyl 10 6 0 0 Isovaleryl 8 2 0 0 Hexanoyl 2 1 0 0 Acetoacetyl 4 1 7 1 Results are means and SD from three separate Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase cultures. Discussion B. fibrisolvens was originally described as a small, Gram-positive bacterium particularly prevalent in the rumen of grazing animals [19]. Many strains are proteolytic and involved in fibre breakdown [19, 20]. B. fibrisolvens JW11 was originally isolated as a proteolytic strain [21]. It has been many years since the importance of B. fibrisolvens in the process of PUFA reduction, or biohydrogenation, was first documented [12]. Although other bacteria have been implicated

[22], biohydrogenating activity is high among all members of what is now known to be an extensive Butyrivibrio phylogenetic tree [16]. Indeed, in our experience, its activity is many times higher than in other species [17]. ‘Type B’ bacteria, which complete the reduction of 18:1 isomers to SA, was identified as C. proteoclasticum [23], which has recently been renamed Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus [18]. The pattern of metabolism of LA and LNA observed here, and the identity of the intermediates, follows the pathways established first by Kepler et al. [13] and confirmed later by others [24–26]. The observations linking growth and LA metabolism with B. fibrisolvens JW11 are consistent with those obtained with B. fibrisolvens A38 [14] and B. fibrisolvens TH1 [15]. What is novel about the present observations is that they clearly demonstrate that biohydrogenation is a detoxification process, necessary to escape from the bacteriostatic effects of PUFA.

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