Methods: Tissue sections from the central nervous system of infected cases were examined by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization.
Results: All 13 cases of EV71 encephalomyelitis collected from Asia and France invariably showed stereotyped distribution of inflammation in the spinal cord, brainstem, hypothalamus, cerebellar dentate nucleus and, to a lesser extent, cerebral cortex and meninges. Anterior pons, corpus striatum, thalamus, temporal lobe, hippocampus and cerebellar cortex were always uninflamed. In contrast, the eight JE cases studied showed inflammation involving most neuronal areas of the central nervous system, including the areas that were uninflamed in EV71 encephalomyelitis. Lesions in both infections were nonspecific, consisting of perivascular Venetoclax in vivo and parenchymal infiltration by inflammatory cells, oedematous/necrolytic areas, microglial nodules and neuronophagia. Viral inclusions were absent. Conclusions: Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization assays were useful to identify the causative virus, localizing viral antigens and RNA, respectively, almost exclusively to neurones.
The stereotyped distribution of inflammatory lesions in EV71 encephalomyelitis appears to be very useful to help distinguish it from JE. “
“Multiple Dabrafenib sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are inflammatory autoimmune diseases that affect the central nervous system. Several genome-wide and candidate gene studies have identified genetic polymorphisms associated with the risk of MS or NMO. In particular, two recently published studies of meta-analysis in European-origin populations have suggested associations of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CD6, TNFRSF1A and IRF8
with MS. The aim of our study was to assess the associations between SNPs in these three genes and the risk of inflammatory demyelinating disease (IDD) including MS and NMO. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such a study has been performed in an Asian population. A total of 21 SNPs of CD6, TNFRSF1A and IRF8 Abiraterone cost were genotyped in 178 IDD cases (79 MS and 99 NMO patients) and 237 normal controls in a Korean population. Logistic analyses revealed that one SNP in CD6 (rs12288280, P = 0.04) and three SNPs in TNFRSF1A (rs767455, rs4149577 and rs1800693, P = 0.01–0.03) were associated with NMO. However, there was no association of IRF8 polymorphisms with IDD, including MS and NMO. Using further information from the SNP Function Prediction website, two exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs), including the polymorphic site of rs767455, were predicted to be binding sites for splicing factors (SRp55, SF2/ASF2 and SF2/ASF1). Although additional studies are needed, our findings could provide information regarding the genetic aetiology of IDD in the Korean population.