Murine intranasal and intracerebral challenge assays have been va

Murine intranasal and intracerebral challenge assays have been validated and used to demonstrate the protection of pertussis vaccine for many years [30–32]. The results obtained from the intranasal and intracerebral

challenge tests strongly suggest that rPrn functions as a protective antigen. These observations are consistent with previous reports that a click here higher Th1-type response was associated with a stronger level of protection against B. pertussis [29]. In this study, the bacterial loads were only evaluated on day 7 in lungs of the mince after the intranasal challenge. However, a time course of infection would probably provide more information on the protective properties of the proteins studied. So far, twelve, two and four different variants have been reported in Prn, Fim2 and Fim3, respectively [17, 18, 33]. At present, the prevalent allele combinations of B. pertussis isolates are prn2/fim3B [18]. The

strains used in this study and the strains used for vaccine production are prn1/fim3A or prn6/fim3A. As the difference occurred between B. pertussis vaccine strains and circulating isolates in many countries [16–18, 33], it has been proposed that the strain variation may have effect on the vaccine efficacy [16]. In this case, engineering strategies will remedy antigenic shifts by performing genetic mutation on the antigen encoding genes, which is an advantage of using recombinant proteins compared with the ones purified from B. pertussis. Because of the similarity in the molecular weight, it is extremely difficult to purify separately Fim2 and Fim3 proteins Pregnenolone ABT-263 purchase from B. pertussis. Therefore, antibody responses against Fim2

or Fim3 were only measured in ELISA using a mixture of Fim2 and Fim3 proteins as coating antigen in clinical vaccine trials [8, 34]. The exact role of Fim2 and Fim3 in protection against pertussis is not fully known. In this study, recombinant Fim2 and Fim3 were expressed and purified separately. For the first times, their functions in protection against pertussis were assessed separately in mice model. The study demonstrated that higher antibody titres and cellular immune response characteristic of increased production of IL-2 were induced in mice immunized with rFim2 and rFim3. Although monoclonal anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 antibodies were used in the study, it remains to be shown whether there is cross-reacting response between Fim2 and Fim3. It is known that IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ are characteristic cytokines for Th1 response, and IL-4 and IL-10 for Th2 response [29]. In this study, we have only measured serum concentrations of IL-2, TNF-α and IL-4. It is interesting to study concentrations of other cytokines such as IFN-γ in sera collected from mice after immunization and infection. Further, serum IL-4 was not measurable in all mice tested in this study.

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