Nevertheless, the up-regulation of genes involved

in the

Nevertheless, the up-regulation of genes involved

in the synthesis of lipids, especially in the construction of lipid membrane structures, is in contrast with previous works reporting that inside the macrophage mycobacteria, such as MTB, shifted their energy metabolism to the use of fatty acids in beta-oxidation [24]. However, the regime of anaerobic respiration is further confirmed by the down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation both for subunits of NADH dehydrogenase and for other complexes involved in electron transport chain together with F0F1 ATPase subunits as already observed in experiments with MTB under nutrient starvation [60], oxidative agents [61] and in infection of macrophages [62] Thiazovivin datasheet in addition to the common down-regulation of nuoG, which was identified in MTB as an antiapoptotic factor for macrophages [63]. In the Pinometostat price complex metabolism of MLN2238 cell wall and membrane, both transcriptomes show a common up-regulation of the synthesis of LPS (MAP3251) and membrane phospholipids (MAP3059c) while in the

cell processing metabolism, a common up-regulation of resistance factors to multiple antibiotics (MAP3197 MAP1976 MAP3532c), together with a common down-regulation of some tetR factors (MAP3052c MAP2262) involved in the suppression of the resistance to lipophilic antibiotics, is consistently present as similarly seen in MTB with multiple stress experiments [56]. Additionally, the detoxification metabolism underlines a common degradation pathway for reactive oxygen species with sodC which

was also found to be significantly expressed in MTB during Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase oxidative stress [61] together with the up-regulation of acid-resistance membrane protein (MAP1317c) in order to cope with the acidic environment, and end required for the repair of DNA damage, previously identified in MTB after treatment with antibacterial agents [64]. Finally, MAP’s virulence exhibits a common up-regulation of the PE-PGRS family protein (MAP4144) in both transcriptomes which might be a common response to the antigenic diversity profile. Discussion Most of the works present in the literature concerning studies on whole functional genomics in in vitro mycobacterial infection of mammalian cell lines have focused on the transcriptional framework of the infected cell rather than the transcriptome belonging to the infecting bacteria [17, 18, 65]. This is due to the fact that obtaining sufficient amount of RNA from mycobacteria in order to perform microarray hybridization experiments is difficult [21].

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