1502T>G mutation The mutation is predicted to substitute vali

1502T>G mutation. The mutation is predicted to substitute valine for glycine at a highly conserved amino acid residue 501 (p.Val501Gly). Other healthy family members were either heterozygotes Selleckchem TH-302 or mutation-free. The mutation was not detected in 50 healthy unrelated individuals. In silico analyses using PolyPhen-2 and SIFT predicted that the p.Val501Gly mutation is functionally “”damaging.”" Tertiary modeling showed structural alterations in the active site of the mutant TPO. In conclusion, a novel mutation, p.Val501Gly, in the TPO gene was detected

expanding the mutation spectrum of TPO associated with CH and MNG.”
“Background: It has been estimated that major orthopaedic surgery has the highest risk of venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) when compared with other surgery. Two new orally active anticoagulants have recently become licensed in Ireland for the primary prevention of venous thromboembolism in adult patients undergoing elective total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR). Rivaroxaban (Xarelto (R)) is a direct factor Xa inhibitor and dabigatran etexilate (Pradaxa (R)) is a prodrug of the active compound dabigatran, which

inhibits LBH589 solubility dmso thrombin.

Objective: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of rivaroxaban and dabigatran etexilate compared with enoxaparin sodium for the prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing elective THR and TKR in the Irish healthcare setting.

Methods: The evaluation was conducted from the Irish health-payer perspective. A static decision-tree model was developed with a 180-day post-surgery time horizon. Separate models for the disease states THR and TKR were run to accommodate the different venous thromboembolism risks associated

with each procedure. Outcome measures were QALYs and life-years XL184 molecular weight gained (LYG). Costs were valued in E, year 2008 values.

One-way sensitivity analysis of all probabilities in the model was performed. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis using second-order Monte Carlo simulation was performed to determine the probability of cost effectiveness at a (sic)45 000 per QALY threshold.

Results: In the THR base-case model, rivaroxaban dominated both dabigatran etexilate and enoxaparin sodium. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for dabigatran etexilate relative to enoxaparin were (sic)23 934 per LYG and (sic)17835 per QALY. In the TKR base-case model, rivaroxaban dominated both dabigatran etexilate and enoxaparin sodium. Dabigatran etexilate also dominated enoxaparin sodium.

In the one-way sensitivity analysis, the THR model was robust to all but four probability variations; the TKR model was robust to all variations. At a cost-effectiveness threshold of (sic)45 000 per QALY, the probability that rivaroxaban was the most cost-effective strategy after THR was 39%, followed by dabigatran etexilate at 32% and enoxaparin sodium at 29%.

GmWNK1 expression was detected in the root, specifically in root

GmWNK1 expression was detected in the root, specifically in root cells

associated with lateral root formation, and was down-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA), as well as by mannitol, sucrose, polyethylene glycol and NaCl. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that GmWNK1 interacts with another soybean protein, GmCYP707A1, which is a key ABA 8′-hydroxylase that functions in ABA catabolism. Furthermore, 35S-GmWNK1 transgenic soybean plants had reduced lateral root number and length compared with wild-type, suggesting a role of learn more GmWNK1 in the regulation of root system architecture. We propose that GmWNK1 functions to fine-tune ABA-dependent ABA homeostasis, thereby mediating the regulation of the root system architecture by ABA and osmotic signals.

The study has revealed a new function of a plant WNK1 gene from the important staple crop soybean, and has identified a new component of a regulatory pathway that is involved not only in ABA signaling, but also in the repression of lateral root formation by an ABA-dependent mechanism distinct from known ABA signaling pathways.”
“Asian Americans represent an important cohort at high risk for viral hepatitis. To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HBV vaccination in a Vietnamese community, a total of 322 Fosbretabulin solubility dmso Vietnamese subjects from a local doctor’s office and annual Vietnamese Health Fair were included in this study. Demographic and clinical data were collected. 2.2% of the screened cohort tested positive for anti-HCV and 9.3% tested positive for HBsAg. Unlike HBV-positive subjects, HCV-positive subjects had significantly higher liver enzymes (P = 0.0045 and P = 0.0332, respectively). The HBV-positive group was more likely Erastin ic50 to report jaundice (P = 0.0138) and a family history of HBV (P = 0.0115) compared to HBV-negative subjects. Forty-eight patients (15.5%) reported a family history of liver disease (HBV, HCV, HCC, cirrhosis, other). Of

this 48, 68.8% reported no personal history of HBV vaccination and 77.1% reported no family history of vaccination for HBV. Among the 183 subjects without a family history of liver disease, 156 (85.2%) reported no personal history of vaccination and 168 (91.8%) reported no family history of vaccination. HBV vaccination rates in those reporting a family history of liver disease were significantly higher (P = 0.020). There was a high prevalence of HBV infection in this community screening. Nevertheless, the rate for HBV vaccination was low. The low prevalence of abnormal liver enzymes in HBV-positive subjects emphasizes the need for screening to be triggered by risk factors and not by abnormal liver enzymes.”
“Anthrax is rare among humans, few data can be collected from infected individuals and they provide a fragmentary view of the dynamics of infection and human host-pathogen interactions. Therefore, the development of animal models is necessary.

Clinical practice along with further trials will have to prove th

Clinical practice along with further trials will have to prove their value, along with other compounds that are still in their early phase of development.”
“The prevalence of fatty liver is rising not only in adults but also in children and adolescents. The authors describe the ultrastructure of 12 biopsies from 10 males and 2 females aged 7-18 years. All subjects had fatty liver by ultrasonography and were overweight or obese according to BMI classification. They all had elevated aminotransferases and/or lipid/cholesterol levels, ultimately confirmed by biopsy. Steatosis was mild in 2, moderate in 3, and severe in 7 cases. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was diagnosed in 7 and nonalcoholic

fatty liver disease in 5 patients. Lipolysosomes, identified in all 17-AAG 12 biopsies, were defined as fat droplets surrounded by a trilaminar membrane and lipofuscin-like deposits within or adjacent to the enveloping membrane. The lysosome marker CD68 revealed lysosomal activity in all lipolysosomes PD0332991 mw identified by electron microscopy. The ultrastructural features, here illustrated in diverse human biopsies, enabled lipolysosome classification in 3 types: monolocular (type I), multilocular (type II), and giant multilocular (type III). Type II, previously described in some conditions with abnormal lipid metabolism, was found in all biopsies, though with variable frequency. Type III was

observed only in severe steatosis and associated with prominent connective tissue and conspicuous lipofuscin deposits. These new findings demonstrate the presence of lipolysosomes

in a variety of fatty livers, in conditions hitherto unknown, in relation to the severity of steatosis, fibrogenic process, autophagy, lipolysis, and lipofuscin formation.”
“OBJECTIVE: To prospectively determine the diagnostic accuracy of massively parallel sequencing to detect whole chromosome fetal aneuploidy from maternal plasma.

METHODS: Blood samples were collected in a prospective, blinded study from 2,882 women undergoing prenatal diagnostic procedures at 60 U.S. sites. An independent biostatistician selected all singleton pregnancies with any abnormal karyotype and a balanced number of randomly selected pregnancies with euploid karyotypes. Chromosome classifications were made for each sample by massively parallel sequencing and compared with fetal karyotype.

RESULTS: Within an analysis cohort of Ipatasertib mw 532 samples, the following were classified correctly: 89 of 89 trisomy 21 cases (sensitivity 100%, 95% [confidence interval] CI 95.9-100), 35 of 36 trisomy 18 cases (sensitivity 97.2%, 95% CI 85.5-99.9), 11 of 14 trisomy 13 cases (sensitivity 78.6%, 95% CI 49.2-99.9), 232 of 233 females (sensitivity 99.6%, 95% CI 97.6 to more than 99.9), 184 of 184 males (sensitivity 100%, 95% CI 98.0-100), and 15 of 16 monosomy X cases (sensitivity 93.8%, 95% CI 69.8-99.8). There were no false-positive results for autosomal aneuploidies (100% specificity, 95% CI more than 98.5 to 100).

A dose of 0 5 mL of triamcinolone acetonide (40 mg/mL) was inject

A dose of 0.5 mL of triamcinolone acetonide (40 mg/mL) was injected TPCA-1 nmr into the subconjunctival space at the upper margin of the tarsus. If the upper lid retraction had not improved or was still severe 2 weeks after the initial injection, then triamcinolone was injected repeatedly at 2-week intervals. Photographs were taken before the injection and at the follow-up visit,

and lid parameters including marginal reflex distance 1, interpalpebral fissure height, total palpebral fissure area, the upper nasal palpebral fissure area, and the upper temporal palpebral fissure area were measured. Changes in the lid parameters after the injection were evaluated.

The mean number of injections per patient was 2.67, and the mean (SD) follow-up period was 260.97 (91.10) days. All lid parameters improved significantly after the triamcinolone injection (all P’s < 0.05). Nineteen of 22 patients in the congestive phase responded to this website the triamcinolone injection; however, 6 of 8 patients in the fibrotic phase did not respond to the triamcinolone injection. Complications associated with the triamcinolone injection included an increased intraocular pressure (2 patients) and a mild ptosis (1 patient).

The subconjunctival triamcinolone injection

is a simple and effective treatment option for the upper lid retraction associated with thyroid eye disease, and this treatment is more effective for the patients in the congestive phase.”
“Leukemogenesis is a multistep process in which successive transformational events enhance the ability of a clonal population arising from hematopoietic AL3818 concentration progenitor cells to proliferate, differentiate and survive. Clinically and pathologically, leukemia is subdivided into four main categories: chronic

lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia has been previously considered only as a genetic disease. However, in recent years, significant advances have been made in the elucidation of the leukemogenesis-associated processes. Thus, we have come to understand that epigenetic alterations including DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNA are involved in the permanent changes of gene expression controlling the leukemia phenotype. In this article, we will focus on the epigenetic defects associated with leukemia and their implications as biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic applications.”
“Preclinical assessment of drug abuse and dependence has been the subject of several recent regulatory guidelines. Both the European and US authorities recommend a tiered approach and are generally aligned on the methods which should be used. The first tier simply compares the pharmacology of the novel substance to known drugs of abuse. The second tier aims to identify abuse and dependence liability more directly. The most direct approach to assessing reinforcing properties is the i.v. self-administration procedure.


“Because the vagus nerve is implicated in control of infla


“Because the vagus nerve is implicated in control of inflammation, we investigated if brain death (BD) causes impairment of the parasympathetic nervous system, thereby contributing to inflammation. BD was induced in rats. Anaesthetised ventilated rats (NBD) served as control. Heart rate buy ARN-509 variability (HRV) was assessed by ECG. The vagus nerve was electrically stimulated (BD + STIM) during BD. Intestine, kidney, heart and liver were recovered after 6 hours. Affymetrix chip-analysis was performed

on intestinal RNA. Quantitative PCR was performed on all organs. Serum was collected to assess TNF alpha concentrations. Renal transplantations were performed to address the influence of vagus nerve stimulation on graft outcome. HRV was significantly lower in BD animals. Vagus nerve stimulation inhibited the increase in serum TNF alpha concentrations and resulted in down-regulation of a multiplicity of pro-inflammatory genes in intestinal tissue. In renal tissue vagal stimulation significantly decreased the expression of

E-selectin, IL1 beta and ITGA6. Renal function was significantly better in recipients that received a graft from a BD + STIM donor. Our study demonstrates impairment of the parasympathetic nervous system during BD and inhibition of serum TNF alpha through vagal stimulation. selleck kinase inhibitor Vagus nerve stimulation variably affected gene expression in donor organs and improved renal function in recipients.”
“Study Design. Retrospective radiographic study of the technique for C1 lateral mass screw (C1LMS) and C2 pedicle screw (C2PS) fixation.

Objective. To evaluate (1) the accuracy of the C1LMS and C2PS placement; (2) the fusion rate between C1 and C2; (3) the risk for vertebral artery (VA) injury.

Summary of Background Data. C1LMS and C2PS fixation

is widely used when treating atlantoaxial instability. Several authors have reported their experience focusing on the technical outcomes, with selleck many reporting fusion rates near 100%. However, most of them are relatively small series, and many have applied only plain postoperative radiographs instead of computed tomography (CT). Thus, we feel that the accuracy of C1LMS and C2PS placement has not been fully analyzed, as well as the anatomic relationship between the VA and the screws.

Methods. Between December 2000 and September 2008, the fusion status and accuracy of the screws were evaluated on the postoperative reconstructive CT of 319 patients with atlantoaxial instability. Cases with malpositioned screws underwent CT angiography or magnetic resonance angiography after surgery, to evaluate potential VA injury.

Results. C1LMS of 95.5% and C2PS of 92.8% were found to be in a “”good”" position. After 2007, six cases had malpositioned screws, which were all in the “”out”" or “”down”" area of the C2 pedicle. Five cases underwent CT angiography and 1 had magnetic resonance angiography to evaluate potential VA injury. No occlusion, associated aneurysm or fistula of the VA was found.

The patient was informed about the poor prognosis of her pregnanc

The patient was informed about the poor prognosis of her pregnancy and the pregnancy was terminated by vaginal misoprostol induction. She has maintained a good general condition and liver function for 4 months postoperatively, up to the present time.”
“This study was carried out to compare the post-thaw cryosurvival rate and the level of apoptosis in vitro produced zona-free cloned buffalo blastocysts subjected to slow freezing or vitrification in open-pulled straws (OPS). Zona-free cloned embryos produced by handmade cloning were divided into Go6983 two groups and were cryopreserved either by slow freezing

or by vitrification in OPS. Cryosurvival of blastocysts was determined by their re-expansion rate following post-thaw culture for 22-24h. The post-thaw re-expansion rate was significantly (p<0.05) higher following vitrification in OPS (71.2 +/- 2.3%) compared with that after slow freezing (41.6 +/- 4.8%). For examining embryo quality, the level of apoptosis in day 8 frozen-thawed blastocysts was determined by TUNEL staining. The total cell number was not significantly different among the control

non-cryopreserved cloned embryos (422.6 +/- 67.8) and those cryopreserved by slow freezing (376.4 +/- 29.3) or vitrification in OPS (422.8 +/- 36.2). However, the apoptotic index, which was similar for embryos subjected to slow EPZ004777 mouse freezing (14.8 +/- 2.0) or OPS vitrification (13.3 +/- 1.8), was significantly (p<0.05) buy BIBF 1120 higher than that for the control non-cryopreserved cloned embryos (3.4 +/- 0.6). In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that vitrification in OPS is better than slow freezing for the cryopreservation of zona-free cloned buffalo blastocysts

because it offers a much higher cryosurvival rate.”
“Purpose of review

The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent events and experiences in the Philippines related to compensated kidney donation.

Recent findings

Between 2002 and 2008, the Philippine government, through the Department of Health, administered a program called the Philippine Organ Donation Program that allowed prospective kidney providers to sign up, be allocated to prospective recipients and receive gratuities for their kidney. Transplant tourism flourished during this period because of rampant disregard for the regulation limiting foreign recipients to 10% of total kidney transplants. There is evidence of inadequate donor care. Efforts to curb the problem included a ban on foreigners coming to the Philippines to have kidney transplants with Filipinos as donors as well as strengthening of the implementing rules and regulations of both the antihuman trafficking law and the organ donation law that allowed donation after brain death.

Summary

The experience in the Philippines mirrored those in India and Pakistan where paid donors reported poor outcomes.

The study included 102 nucleoside naive CHB patients who had rece

The study included 102 nucleoside naive CHB patients who had received clevudine for more than 6 months with good compliance. The median duration of clevudine treatment was 53 weeks (range, 25-90 weeks). A retrospective analysis of data retrieved from medical records was performed. The cumulative rate of virologic response [hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level < 2000 copies/mL] at 48 weeks of clevudine therapy was 81%, and cumulative rate of clevudine resistance was 11% at 60 weeks of treatment. Independent predictors of virologic response to clevudine

Selleck A769662 therapy were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) negativity and rapid decrease of viral load during the early phase of treatment. The clevudine-related myopathy developed in 3.9% of patients, and was reversible after discontinuation of clevudine. Clevudine showed a potent antiviral response, and its effect was higher in HBeAg-negative patients, with rapid viral load reduction after therapy. However, long-term therapy for more than 1 year resulted in the development of considerable resistance and myopathy. Therefore, we should consider alternative antiviral agents if clevudine resistance or clevudine-induced myopathy is developed in patients on clevudine for the treatment of CHB.”
“Paradoxical embolization is a rare but well-recognized cause of stroke. Some studies have selleck suggested a link between

patent foramen ovale (PFO) and a higher risk of ischemic stroke through this mechanism. PFO is more commonly seen in patients with cryptogenic stroke, but a clear causative relationship between the two is not well established. Other anatomic features associated with a PFO could increase the risk of a recurrent stroke, including an atrial septal aneurysm (ASA), a large PFO, and spontaneous right-to-left shunt at rest. An underlying hypercoagulable state should be ruled out if a PFO is found in a patient with a stroke or transient ischemic attack who has no other identifiable source. Options for secondary prevention in these patients include

antiplatelet LY2157299 price therapy, anticoagulation, and surgical or endovascular closure. Studies have not shown any advantage of warfarin over aspirin. Surgical closure is a less favorable option because of its high perioperative risks. To date, retrospective studies show variable results of endovascular closure for prevention of stroke. Several randomized prospective studies currently under way are expected to conclusively answer this question. Until these data is available, antiplatelet therapy remains the first-line treatment and endovascular closure should be considered in selected cases.”
“Kinetically stable proteins, those whose stability is derived from their slow unfolding kinetics and not thermodynamics, are examples of evolution’s best attempts at suppressing unfolding.

In contrast, while ARF increased over time in other

group

In contrast, while ARF increased over time in other

groups, the rates of rise were slower than in CABG patients. Among heart surgery procedures, ARF incidence is highest in heart transplantation. The incidence of ARF is also increasing at a faster rate in this group of patients in contrast to other procedure groups when compared to CABG surgery. The disproportionate increase in ARF burden after heart transplantation is a concern due to its strong association with chronic kidney disease and mortality.”
“The effects of material and treatment parameters on airflow resistivity and normal-incidence sound absorption coefficient (NAC) of compressed three-layer nonwoven composites have been studied. Material parameters included fiber size and porosity, and treatment factors included applied pressure and duration of compression. Fibers used included poly(lactic acid) (PLA), Caspase inhibitor in vivo polypropylene (PP), glassfiber, and hemp. Three-layered nonwoven composites were classified based on material content and fiber blend. LHL and PGP were sandwiched

structures consisting of PLA/Hemp/PLA and PP/glassfiber/PP layers, respectively. PGI consisted of three layers of an intimate blend of PP and glassfiber. Statistical models were developed to predict air flow resistivity from material parameters and the change in air flow resistivity from compression parameters. Independent variables in the first model were porosity and fiber size and, in the latter model, were compressibility, pressure, and initial material parameters. An increase in air flow resistivity was found with increased Silmitasertib manufacturer compression. No significant effect of compression duration was detected. Two additional statistical models were developed for the prediction of sound absorption coefficient based on material and treatment parameters. The independent variables of the first model were air flow resistivity, thickness, and

frequency, and those of the second model were compressibility, initial thickness, and initial density of the composite, diameter and density of the fiber, compression pressure, and frequency. https://www.sellecn.cn/products/birinapant-tl32711.html A decrease in sound absorption coefficient was detected with increasing compression, while no effect of duration was detected. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 2095-2106, 2012″
“Shugoshin is a conserved protein in eukaryotes that protects the centromeric cohesin of sister chromatids from cleavage by separase during meiosis. In this study, we identify the rice (Oryza sativa, 2n = 2x = 24) homolog of ZmSGO1 in maize (Zea mays), named OsSGO1. During both mitosis and meiosis, OsSGO1 is recruited from nucleoli onto centromeres at the onset of prophase. In the Tos17-insertional Ossgo1-1 mutant, centromeres of sister chromatids separate precociously from each other from metaphase I, which causes unequal chromosome segregation during meiosis II.

We report a case of oral-ritodrine-hydrochloride-induced rhabdomy

We report a case of oral-ritodrine-hydrochloride-induced rhabdomyolysis in a pregnant woman with placenta previa without neuromuscular disorders. The patient was a 30-year-old, Japanese primigravida woman, who became pregnant spontaneously. At 23 gestational weeks, she was diagnosed as having placenta previa and prophylactic oral ritodrine hydrochloride (15 mg/day) was initiated. At 29 1/7 gestational weeks, she was referred to our hospital for perinatal management of placenta previa. Two days thereafter, vaginal bleeding

accompanied by frequent uterine contractions occurred and she was admitted. On admission, laboratory tests revealed an abnormal increase of blood creatine kinase (CK) value of 7200 IU/L. CK-MB isoenzyme was 208 IU/L. Aspartate transaminase (163 IU/L), alanine transaminase (74 IU/L) and lactate dehydrogenase (536 IU/L) levels were also increased. The patient started to complain of extreme muscle pain in PFTα nmr her upper and lower limbs and general weakness. The next day, laboratory tests revealed a tremendous increase of blood CK level of 87 300 IU/L, a blood myoglobin level of 11 200 ng/mL, and a urinary myoglobin level of 615 ng/mL. An emergency cesarean section was carried out. After delivery, the laboratory data improved Bucladesine cell line gradually with the CK levels at 107 IU/L. If patients complain of muscular symptoms following

oral ritodrine hydrochloride use, physicians should consider rhabdomyolysis.”
“Tannins from Pinus pinaster bark were modified with

propylene oxide (PO) in aqueous alkali at room temperature (similar to 22 degrees C) for the first time. The hydroxypropylation to four different degrees of substitution (DS) produced derivatives (HPT) with monosubstituted phenolic functionalities in yields in excess of 80%. The isolated HPTs were characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis, H-1 NMR and bidimensional spectroscopies (HMBC, HSQC and COSY). The integration of the aromatic proton signals in the H-1 NMR spectra of acetylated HPT allowed for an easy quantitative AG-881 datasheet determination of DS. HPTs possess properties that are expected to enhance their role in new oligomeric building-blocks for the synthesis of engineered plastics and tannin-based bio-foams. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose of review

Multiple studies have demonstrated a role for scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) in female fertility. Recent studies have implicated specific SR-B1 gene polymorphisms in decreased progesterone production and suboptimal fertility outcomes.

Recent findings

The lipoprotein receptor SR-B1 has been known to mediate selective uptake of lipids into steroidogenic tissues such as the ovaries. SR-B1 plays a major role in the ability of the corpus luteum to produce progesterone, which is known to play a key role in sustaining early pregnancy. Animal studies have demonstrated that deficiency in SR-B1 results in subfertility that can be restored with addition of SR-B1 function.

Patients with pain radiating below the buttocks with a duration o

Patients with pain radiating below the buttocks with a duration of 4 weeks to 1 year were included. After physical and radiological examinations, a diagnosis of SI joint-related pain, pain due to disk herniation, or a combination of these two causes was made.

Patients with SIJ-related leg

pain (n = 77/186) were significantly more often female, had shorter statue, a shorter duration of symptoms, and had more often pain radiating to the groin and a history of a fall on the buttocks. Muscle weakness, corkscrew phenomenon, finger-floor distance a parts per thousand yen25 cm, lumbar scoliosis, selleck products positive Bragard or Kemp sign, and positive leg raising test were more often present when radiologic nerve root compression was present. Although these investigations may help, MRI of the spine is necessary to discriminate between the groups.

Sciatica-like symptoms derived from the SIJ can clinically mimic a radiculopathy. We suggest to perform a thorough physical examination of the spine, SI joints, and hips with additional radiological tests to exclude other causes.”
“Gastrointestinal lesions with uncertain etiology have been widely described among pinnipeds. check details The aim of our study was to investigate

the presence of Helicobacter spp. in the gastric mucosa of South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis). Gastric biopsies from thirteen seals, stranded on the shores of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean in Argentina. were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter spp. by PCR and DNA sequence analysis. Six gastric biopsies were positive for Helicobacter spp. Pairwise sequence comparisons showed less than 95% identity to novel Helicobacter spp. described from pinnipeds from North America and Australia. However, phylogenetic analysis revealed that the South American fur seal sequences clustered with 99-100% homology with H. cetorum, a species isolated from dolphins and whales. The presence of H. cetorum in pinnipeds,

if confirmed by its isolation from the gastric mucosa of these mammals., demonstrates the wide host range of this bacterium in the marine environment. 10058-F4 datasheet (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: For a microbial fuel cell (MFC), the anode potential is an important electrochemical parameter for the growth, electron distribution and electrical activity of exoelectrogenic bacteria.

RESULTS: The performance of a batch-flow two-chambered MFC was investigated operated at anode potentials of -400, -200, 0, +200 and +400 mV versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Glucose was used as substrate and ferricyanide as cathodic electron acceptor. At potentials from -400 to +200 mV, increasing maximum current outputs were obtained, ranging from 6.0 to 8.6 mA. However, the maximum current output decreased to 6.9 mA when the anode potential was further increased to +400 mV.