Parasitism rates are low

Parasitism rates are low OSI-906 solubility dmso (Calcaterra et al., 1999) and the populations of parasites are small and localized (Tschinkel, 2006). The strongest effect of S. daguerrei is the collapse of the parasitized colony, but typically the detrimental effects are not extreme ( Tschinkel, 2006). As evidenced

by Dedeine et al. (2005) the intimate relationship (trophallaxis and egg carrying) between workers of the infected nest and the social parasite creates enough opportunities for horizontal transmission of microorganisms, such as Wolbachia, from the host to the social parasite and, possibly from the social parasite to the host. Dedeine et al. (2005) found two Wolbachia variants infecting S. daguerrei identical to known variants infection other Solenopsis species (S. invicta and S. richteri) and suggested that possible transfer of

Wolbachia between S. daguerrei and their hosts have occurred. This study was aimed for investigating the presence and distribution of the endobacteria Wolbachia in populations of S. invicta, S. saevissima, S. megergates, S. geminata, EPZ015666 purchase and S. pusillignis in Brazil, using the hypervariable region of the wsp gene. We analyzed specimens of 114 colonies of five species of the genus Solenopsis from south, southeast, north, northeast, and west-central Brazil ( Table 1 and Fig. 1). Ant workers of several sizes were collected directly from nests and frozen in 80% ethanol to avoid DNA degradation. The material was identified 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase using mitochondrial DNA, more specifically

the cytochrome oxidase I (COI), for the identification of the species. The visual differentiation between different species of Solenopsis is hampered due to poor definition of morphological characteristics ( Pitts et al., 2005). In this sense, molecular data can clarify the doubts created by morphological identifications and may even be the main tool used to differentiate species by allowing for the creation of a DNA barcode ( Hebert et al., 2003a, Hebert et al., 2003b and Ratnasingham and Hebert, 2007). Based on the sequencing of part of the COI, fragments of the sampled populations were generated and compared using Blast searches (NCBI – National Center for Biotechnology Information). The identification was considered positive when there was a strong similarity between compared sequences with high scores and E-values equal to 0 or very close to those deposited in the database. Total DNA was extracted out using a non-phenolic method. Five whole ant workers (pool) were used. Samples were homogenized in lysis buffer consisted of 100 mM Tris, pH 9.1, 100 mM NaCl, 50 mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS. The homogenized samples were incubated at 55 °C, for 3 h; protein residues were precipitated with 5 M NaCl.

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