Representative cultures of all species are deposited in Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht, The Netherlands (CBS) or the American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, VA, U.S.A. (ATCC). Fig. 1 Bayesian phylogram obtained from the concatenated alignment of tef1, cal1 and chi18-5 loci. See Druzhinina et al. (2012) for details The Longibrachiatum Clade of Trichoderma Colonies typically growing well and sporulating at ≥ 35°C; a diffusing yellow pigment often forming on PDA (Figs. 2, 3). Conidiophores forming in the scant
aerial mycelium and in small, cottony pustules (‘shrubs’; Jaklitsch 2009, 2011) within which long, plumose conidiophores often visible; sterile hairs IACS-10759 supplier present or not in pustules. Conidiophores typically comprising a strongly developed MK 8931 price central axis from which phialides arise singly over several levels below the tip; phialides held in whorls in addition to solitary phialides in some species; often a single phialide terminating a basal cell with a short, spur-like phialide arising as an outgrowth of the basal cell at the septum (‘intercalary phialide’, Samuels et al. 1998). Phialides typically lageniform to nearly cylindrical, often hooked or sinuous. Conidia typically ellipsoidal to oblong,
smooth, less frequently subglobose or roughened to tuberculate. Teleomorphs Hypocrea; stromata a shade of brown or dark gray to black; ostiolar areas in brown stromata often green in lactic acid; part-ascospores subglobose, hyaline, roughened; lignicolous. Synoptic key to Captisol members of the Longibrachiatum Clade of Trichoderma (An asterisk (*) signifies that a species occurs in more than one lead of a character) Species Known distribution 1. T. aethiopicum East Africa 2. H. andinensis Venezuela, high elevation 3. T. capillare
Europe, Interleukin-3 receptor Vietnam, Taiwan 4. T. citrinoviride North and South Temperate 5. T. effusum India, high elevation 6. T. flagellatum Ethiopia 7. T. ghanense West Africa, America, South East Asia, Europe, Australia 8. T. gillesii Indian Ocean 9. T. gracile Malaysia 10. T. konilangbra East Africa, high elevation 11. T. longibrachiatum cosmopolitan/predominantly tropical 12. H. novae-zelandiae New Zealand 13. H. orientalis pantropical, subtropical 14. T. parareesei pantropical, subtropical 15. T. pinnatum Sri Lanka/Vietnam 16. T. pseudokoningii Australasia, rare elsewhere 17. T. reesei pantropical 18. T. saturnisporopsis USA (Oregon), Europe (Sardinia) 19. T. saturnisporum USA, Mexico, South Africa, Europe 20. T. sinense Taiwan 21. T. solani México I.