Survival was not prolonged when IL-4Rα−/− donors were paired with

Survival was not prolonged when IL-4Rα−/− donors were paired with WT hosts, or when IL-4 was blocked in WT controls (WT into WT) (Fig. 3A). To gauge the immunological impact of IL-4Rα deficiency, we measured donor T-cell cytokine production. We found that, in contrast to all other donor/host pairings, WT donor T cells did not produce large amounts

of IFN-γ and IL-17 when transferred into IL-4Rα−/− hosts (Fig. 3B). This donor/host pairing was also unique in the production of IL-10, a cytokine known to suppress both Th1 and Th17 responses (Fig. 3D). Given the improved survival of IL-4Rα-deficient hosts (WT into IL-4Rα−/−), we next asked whether STAT6-deficient sOva Rag2−/− STA-9090 datasheet hosts exhibit a similar phenotype. Surprisingly, we found that survival was not prolonged when WT donors

were transferred into STAT6−/− host and, in stark contrast to IL-4Rα-deficient hosts, that donor T cells produced large amounts of IFN-γ and IL-17 but little IL-10 (Fig. 3C). Survival was also unaffected when STAT6−/− donors were transferred into WT or STAT6−/− hosts, consistent with our finding that IL-4Rα−/− donors are pathogenic in both IL-4Rα-sufficient and deficient settings (Fig. 3A). Thus, Lenvatinib in vivo in the context of systemic autoimmune disease, IL-4Rα can promote lethal pathology by delivering STAT6-independent signals to innate lymphocytes and nonimmune cells. Although IL-4Rα-deficient Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase hosts survived longer than WT counterparts, they did eventually succumb to lethal autoimmune disease, typically culminating between

15 and 30 days posttransfer. However, in contrast to WT hosts, which exhibit massive weight loss and disseminated alopecia [14], moribund IL-4Rα−/− hosts were not emaciated and had a more localized alopecia characterized by patches of complete hair loss (Supporting Information Fig. 5 and data not shown). Also unlike WT hosts, IL-4Rα−/− hosts harbored large numbers of IL-4/IL-13 double-positive donor T cells at day 30, which suggests a shift toward a more Th2-type inflammatory response. The percentage of IL-10+ donor T cells was also increased at this later time point, as was the percentage of IFN-γ+ and IL-17+ cells, though it should be noted that these emerging Th1 and Th17 responses were lesser in magnitude than those seen in WT hosts at day 7 (Fig. 3E and Supporting Information Fig. 5). Thus, IL-4Rα-deficient hosts develop a systemic pathology that is different from that of WT hosts, one that is not only delayed, but also clinically and immunologically distinct.

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