The effects of lectins on digestive

(amylase, trypsin, an

The effects of lectins on digestive

(amylase, trypsin, and protease) and detoxifying (superoxide dismutase (SOD), alpha- and beta-esterases) enzymes from larvae were also determined. cMoL (0.1-0.8 mg/ml) did not kill Rockefeller L-4 as well as WSMoL and cMoL (0.1-0.8 mg/ml) were not larvicidal for Rec-R L-4. WSMoL stimulated protease, trypsin-like, and alpha-amylase from find more Rockefeller L-4 while cMoL inhibited these enzymes. WSMoL had no effect on trypsin-like activity from Rec-R L-4 but inhibited protease and alpha-amylase. Among digestive enzymes of Rec-R L-4, cMoL inhibited only trypsin-like activity. cMoL inhibited SOD activities from Rockefeller and Rec-R L-4 in a higher level than WSMoL while beta-esterase from Rockefeller L-4 was more inhibited by WSMoL. The lectins promoted low stimulation or inhibition of alpha-esterase activities from both populations. In conclusion, Rockefeller and Rec-R larvae were

distinctly affected by M. oleifera lectins, and larvicidal mechanism of WSMoL on Rockefeller L-4 may involve deregulation of digestive enzymes. cMoL interfered mainly on SOD activity and thus it can be investigated as a synergistic agent for controlling populations whose resistance is linked to an increased detoxifying process mediated by this enzyme.”
“PURPOSE: To evaluate the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of detecting early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using a nonmydriatic digital camera in two distinct groups of older people.\n\nDESIGN: Prospective study.\n\nMETHODS: The two groups consisted of a series of patients older than 70 years

hospitalized in a geriatric unit CA3 and a younger series of people older than 55 years. In both groups, nonmydriatic color fundus photographs were obtained and graded independently by two ophthalmologists (V.L. and M.S.). No ophthalmic examination was performed. Main outcome measures were frequencies of early and late AMD and interobserver and intraobserver agreement.\n\nRESULTS: Among 233 patients in group 1 (mean age, 84.6 years), only 119 patients (51%) could undergo photography because of associated multiple morbidities. Mean age of group 2 was 63.8 years. In group 1, 35 (14.5%) of 238 pictures were ungradable. In selleck kinase inhibitor series 2, 65 (9.1%) of 716 pictures were ungradable. Frequencies of early and late AMD were 30.3% and 5.9% vs 12.6% and 2.6% in series 1 and 2, respectively. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement was good or excellent (kappa > 0.6) in both groups.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: In the entire geriatric cohort, 43% of the patients had gradable pictures allowing a diagnosis. These patients would otherwise have had no access to any form of funduscopy. In the younger population, nonmydriatic pictures permitted a diagnosis in 90% of the individuals. Detection of AMD with a nonmydriatic digital camera may lead to large-scale screening and specific management.

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