The estimated birth dates were used to estimate population densit

The estimated birth dates were used to estimate population density and recruitment. These were then compared with other data sources. We found out that density estimates, based on numerical methods [modified nodal analysis (MNA)], underestimated population density during the period of low trappability and that recruitment occurred up to 100 days earlier than was observed FK228 datasheet by capture-mark-recapture

(CMR) analysis and MNA. This study suggests that cohort analysis can be conducted on short-lived small mammals during periods when estimates based on CMR or numerical analysis fail because of low sample sizes. Furthermore, it is possible to use body weight of live-trapped individuals to estimate age. This is important in terms of ethics and conservation as such methods can be conducted without harming or killing the animals. We believe that live-trapping data obtained during a peak period in population density can be a useful aid when describing population parameters of previous months when low trappability prevents direct measurements. “
“Foraging data for terrestrial carnivorans are most often obtained by the analysis of faecal samples – an established technique. However, advances in satellite tracking technology are allowing researchers to locate kill sites by investigating global positioning

system (GPS) clusters in both space and time. Here we compare leopard selleck chemicals Panthera pardus dietary estimates (composition and biomass) of small, medium and large prey using three techniques: faecal analysis, GPS cluster analysis and GPS cluster analysis supplemented with faecal samples located at cluster sites. We demonstrate that estimates of leopard prey composition and biomass intake from each technique

produce comparatively similar results. Nevertheless, the detection of feeding events did increase by 20–23% when supplementing GPS-located kills with faecal samples. selleck kinase inhibitor The investigation of GPS clusters offers an equivalent method of leopard dietary estimation to that of faecal analysis. When carried out intensively, the GPS cluster method is capable of detecting leopard predation on prey species within small, medium and large weight categories. Although requiring additional resources, supplementing GPS-located kills with GPS-located faecal samples results in the most detailed dietary estimates by detecting kills missed during GPS cluster investigations. Practical and efficient ways to estimate prey composition and biomass intake are important for leopard Panthera pardus conservation and management. For example, kill rates, leopard-prey dynamics and foraging requirements are necessary for carrying capacity estimates, and the establishment of protected zones and habitat corridors (Hayward, Obrien & Kerley, 2007; Owen-Smith, 2008; Knopff et al., 2010). For many terrestrial carnivores, foraging data are most often obtained by the analysis of faecal samples (Klare, Kamler & Macdonald, 2011).

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