The PPy nanotube diameter can be enhanced by forming thicker

The PPy nanotube diameter can be enhanced by forming thicker

ZnO nanorod array core structure. However, this reduces the effective thickness of PPy tubular sheath and hence the effective mass of PPy which is an active component for charge storage. On the other hand, increasing thickness of PPy by electropolymerization for longer pulsed current cycles excessively covers the top of the ZnO nanorod arrays making it difficult to etch away the ZnO core which prevented realization of PPy nanotubular arrays. Figure 3 shows the ZnO core-PPy sheath structure with the thicker PPy layer deposited using 20 k unipolar pulsed current cycles. This results in formation of thick conjoined PPy sheath with thickly deposited PPy over the top of ZnO Selleck BYL719 nanorods (Figure 3A). Figure 3B shows a cross-sectional view indicating the ZnO nanorods could still be coated with PPy along its length. The side panel in Figure 3C shows conjoined PPy sheath over ZnO nanorods of average diameter approximately 985 nm to 1 μm. Morphology of the thick PPy deposit is like nodules. Figure 3D shows the top view of the PPy coated ZnO nanorods tips. Figure 3E shows the same view after ammonia etching for 4 h. It is evident that such ZnO nanorod core-PPy sheath

structure did not result in the PPy nanotube RG-7388 order structure after etching. The evolution of the PPy sheath and nanotube structure is schematically shown in Figures 4A, B, C, D, E, F. The vertical ZnO nanorod array (Figure 4A) is preferentially coated with PPy by pulsed

electropolymerization process through surfactant action. Progressively, on continued pulsed current polymerization cycles, the PPy sheath thickness increases (Figure 4B) with possible merging of PPy sheath walls (Figure 4C). Figures 4D, E, F show the evolution of PPy nanotubes through etching of ZnO core starting at the nanorod tips which after short term etching results in the PPy nanotubes along with the inverted conical ZnO cladding (Figure 4D). The PPy nanotube arrays without the ZnO cladding are created by complete etching Cell press of ZnO for longer periods as depicted in Figure 4E with an open pore structure as shown in the top view in Figure 4F. Figure 2 SEM images of ZnO nanorod arrays coated with pulsed current polymerized PPy sheath. (A) Initial stage of PPy oligomers cluster deposition, (B) ZnO core-PPy sheath structure after 10 k pulsed electropolymerization cycles, (C) PPy nanotube array after 2-h etch, and (D) open pore PPy nanotube array after 4-h etch. Figure 3 SEM images. (A) Thicker PPy deposited over ZnO nanorod array when electropolymerization was carried out for 20 k pulsed current cycles, (B) cross-sectional view of PPy sheath coated along the ZnO rod length, and (C) conjoined view of PPy sheath over ZnO nanorods with average diameter of 985 nm. Top view of ZnO nanorod tips with thick PPy sheath (D) before etch and (E) after ammonia etch.

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