0 g), vital gluten Roquette Frères (4.0 g); emulsifier diacetylated tartaric acid ester with mono and diglycerides (DATEM) Panodan® ALB 10 Danisco (0.30 g); fungal α-amylase 10.000 SKB Grindamyl™ A1000 Danisco (0.008 g) and ascorbic acid DSM (0.01 g). The amount of water added to each formulation varied according to the farinographic water absorption determined previously (Almeida et al., 2010). The combinations of WB, RS and LBG were
added to the formulation (in percentages flour basis) according to a complete factorial experimental design. Eighteen assays were conducted, being eight factorial points (23), six axial points (2 × 3), and four repetitions of the central point (Table 1). Six assays were carried out per day, with one of the central points included. The ranges of selleck chemicals the concentrations (flour basis) of the different fibres used were: 0–20 g WB/100 g flour, 0–20 g RS/100 g flour and 0–3 g LBG/100 g flour. For each BTK inhibitor formulation, the ingredients were mixed
in an automatic spiral mixer, model HAE 10 (Hypo, Ferraz de Vasconcelos, Brazil), during 4 min on low speed (with addition of fat and DATEM at the end) and during the time necessary for complete gluten development on high speed. Cool water was added and dough final temperature was monitored so as not to exceed 29 °C. Immediately after mixing, dough was divided into portions of 175 ± 1 g and left to rest during 15 min in a proofing chamber, model 20B (Klimaquip, Pouso Alegre, Brazil), at 30 °C and 80% RH. After this time, doughs were moulded into cylinders, put in baking pans (18 × 6.5 × 5 cm) and left to proof in the proofing chamber at 30 °C and 80% RH, until the geometric centre of the dough reached a height of 1.5 cm above the edge of the baking tin. Proofing time for each formulation was Org 27569 monitored. Loaves were baked during 40 min at 160 °C in a hearth oven, model HF 4B (Hypo, Ferraz de Vasconcelos, Brazil), with vapour injection in the first instants of baking. One hour after removing the loaves from the oven, they were packaged in polypropylene bags. Loaf apparent volume was determined by seed displacement, and loaf mass, using
a semi-analytical scale. Specific volume was determined through the volume/mass ratio and expressed in mL/g. Specific volume was determined in triplicate, 1 h after baking. Crumb colour was determined instrumentally, using a Color Quest II colorimeter (Minolta Camera Co., Osaka, Japan). Established parameters were: observation angle 10° and illuminant D65. Values of L* or lightness (black 0/white 100), a* (green−/red+) and b* (blue−/yellow+), also referred to as the CIE Lab colour system, were determined, and values of C* or chroma and h* or hue angle, also referred to as the CIE L*C*h colour space, were calculated according to Equations (1) and (2) (Minolta, 1993). Crumb colour evaluation was made in the centre of the 4 central slices of the loaf. All measurements were carried out in triplicate.