Skin folds (mm) were measured on the right side of the body in the following rotation: sub-scapular (X1), abdominal (X 2), triceps brachii (X3), and chest at the mix-auxiliary line (X4). Body density (BD) was estimated via the following equation : BD = 1.03316 – .00164X1 + .0041H – .00144X2 – .00069X3 + .00062X4, and then used to estimate BF % : BF % = [(4.57 / BD) – 4.142] × 100. Lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass (FM) were then calculated from the BF % and body weight. Cross sectional area find more A 6-week trial period was chosen to allow for
detectable changes in muscle CSA to occur. Changes in limb muscle mass have been demonstrated to be detectable via CSA measurements after four weeks of training and continue to increase week to week . Limb muscle volume was assessed by evaluating differences in CSA via the Moritani and DeVries (MD) method . The MD method is both sensitive BAY 1895344 (SEE = 3.25 cm2) and highly correlated (r = .98) to computed tomography, the gold standard of CSA measurement
. Girth and skin fold measurements were performed on the right limbs to determine CSA via the MD method. Cross sectional area of the arm was determined at the midpoint between the humeral greater tuberosity and lateral epicondyle, whereas CSA of the thigh was determined at the midpoint of the distance between the greater trochanter and lateral epicondyle of the femur. Skin fold measurements were performed three times Paclitaxel purchase at the four CX-4945 quadrants of the limb at the location where the circumference was measured. Cross sectional area was calculated via the following equation : , where C = limb circumference
and = sum of skin folds. All measurements were performed by the primary investigator to eliminate inter-rater variability. Distances from the proximal boney land mark (humeral greater tuberosity and greater trochanter) where measurements were performed were recorded and used again for post treatment measuring to minimize intra-rater variability. Strength and power testing All strength and power testing was conducted under the supervision of a National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist. Power was assessed via vertical jump using the Just Jump! Mat (Probotics Inc.: Huntsville, AL). Maximal strength was assessed with the free weight bench press and back squat. The heaviest resistance lifted in each exercise was considered the 1 RM. The bench press and back squat were chosen for strength assessment because: they are common exercises performed by weight lifters and the standardized strength training program in this study utilized the two exercises. Additionally, 1 RM testing has been shown to be a reliable (ICC = .96)  measure to assess changes in muscle strength following an exercise intervention.