T cells isolated from B6 ACP-196 concentration mice were resuspended with cRPMI at a density of 5 × 106/ml and then incubated for 4 h in vitro with IL-2 (Sigma Corporation, Santa Clara, CA, USA) at a final concentration of 50 U/ml at 37°C in 5% CO2. RNA isolation and first-strand cDNA synthesis were performed as described previously . Primers used for PCR amplification are as follows: for SOCS3, 5′-TGC
GCC ATG GTC ACC CAC AGC AAG TTT-3′ and 5′-GCT CCT TAA AGT GGA GCA TCA TAC TGA-3′. Amplification was carried out for 30 cycles of denaturation for 30 s at 95°C, annealing for 30 s at 60°C, and extension for 30 s at 72°C. After the 30th cycle, the samples were subjected to a final 10-min extension at 72°C. PCR-amplified fragments were fractionated on 1·5% agarose gels and stained with ethidium bromide. Real-time PCR was performed on a LightCyclerTM real-time PCR sequence detection system (Roche, Switzerland), as described previously, INCB018424 concentration with the following forward and reverse primers, respectively: for SOCS3, 5′-CAA GTC ATC ACT ATT GGC AAC GA-3′ and 5′-CCC AAG AAG GAA GGC TGG A-3′; for β-actin, 5′-CCA GCC ATG TAC GTT GCT ATC-3′ and 5′-CAG GTC CAG ACG CAG GAT GGC-3′. PCR parameters were recommended for the TaqMan Universal PCR Master Mix kit (Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad,
CA, USA). Triplicate samples of twofold serial dilutions of cDNA were assayed and used to construct the standard curves. Lymphocyte proliferation assays were performed as detailed elsewhere . Briefly, freshly isolated B6 naive CD4+ T cells at a density
of 5 × 106/ml were pre-incubated with IL-2 at a final concentration of 50 U/ml Dehydratase for 4 h, and were then stimulated for 72 h with the same quantity of mitomycin-inactivated BALB/c spleen cells at 37°C in 5% CO2. We added the WST-8/Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 kit, Japan) for 4 h before stopping stimulation with allogeneic antigen, and then detected the optical density (OD) value with a 450 nm microplate reader. Mouse SOCS3 DNA fragments flanked by BamHI and EcoRI restriction sites were generated from a pMD18-T/SOCS3 plasmid obtained in a preliminary experiment by PCR amplification using the primers (5′-CTG GAA TTC ATG GTC ACC CAC AGC AAG TT-3′ and 5′-CTG GGA TCC TTA AAG TGG AGC ATC ATA CTG ATC-3′) targeting the SOCS3 construct. The fragments were cloned directionally into the BamHI and EcoRI sites of a pLXSN vector (kindly provided by the Laboratory of Immunity, Fudan University), and the identity of the product was confirmed by sequencing. PA317 packaging cells were transfected with pLXSN-SOCS3 (2·0 µg/ml) using LipofectamineTM 2000, according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Invitrogen, Portland, OR, USA), and cultured to generate supernatants containing retrovirus.