The hydrogenation of methyl and ethyl (2E)-3-[5-(azidomethyl)-2,2

The hydrogenation of methyl and ethyl (2E)-3-[5-(azidomethyl)-2,2-diethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]-2-methylprop-2-enoates over palladium catalyst afforded the expected reduction products.”
“Purpose:

To assess modifiable clusters of cardiovascular risk factors and patterns of antihypertensive drugs use as well as identify clinical characteristics associated with blood pressure control in Jordanians.

Methods: A cross-sectional observational study Screening Library concentration was conducted in cardiology outpatient clinics at two hospitals in Amman, Jordan. Outcomes studied were prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, patterns of antihypertensive medication use, rate of blood pressure control and factors associated with such control.

Results: The number of concomitant medical conditions was high: diabetes mellitus (51 %), dyslipidemia (82 %), coronary artery disease (71 %), history of acute coronary syndrome (37 %) or coronary revascularization (64 %). Hypertension was controlled in 44 % of patients. Average number of antihypertensive medications was 2.38 +/- 1.21. The most commonly prescribed monotherapy medications were beta-blockers (48 %), followed by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) with 28 % and angiotensin II receptor blockers MG 132 (ARBs) with 23 %. Among all patients, beta-blockers (67 %) were also the most prescribed,

followed by ACEIs (47 %) and ARBs (41%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed inverse association between BP control and the presence of diabetes mellitus.

Conclusion: There is inadequate cardiovascular risk assessment and control of blood pressure in hypertensive patients in Jordan. Several practical measures need to be taken urgently to mitigate these deficiencies.”
“Background: Different types of devices are available and the choice about which to use depends on various factors: cost, physical characteristics, performance, and the validity and intra- and interinstrument Lonafarnib in vivo reliability. Given the large number of studies that have used uniaxial or triaxial devices, it is of interest to know whether the different devices give similar information

about PA levels and patterns. The aim of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) levels and patterns obtained simultaneously by triaxial accelerometry and uniaxial accelerometry in adolescents in free-living conditions.

Methods: Sixty-two participants, aged 13-16 years, were recruited in this ancillary study, which is a part of the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA). All participants wore a uniaxial accelerometer (ActiGraph GT1M (R), Pensacola, FL) and a triaxial accelerometer (RT3 (R), Stayhealthy, Monrovia, CA) simultaneously for 7 days. The patterns were calculated by converting accelerometer data output as a percentage of time spent at sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous PA per day. Analysis of output data from the two accelerometers were assessed by two different tests: Equivalence Test and Bland & Altman method.

Combined HHP treatment with enzymes increased the

Combined HHP treatment with enzymes increased the P5091 contents of non-reducing sugars, fructooligosaccharide (FOS), and free amino acids in the extracts compared to those of control, thus activating browning

reaction. Extraction of fermented JA by HHP treatment with or without enzyme showed increased polyphenol content as well as improved 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) like activity compared to the control group. Taken together, HHP treatment of fermented JA with enzymes significantly improved the extractability of bioactive molecules such as phenolics and FOS compared to conventional water extraction or HHP treatment alone. Our results provide useful information for the improvement of raw material extraction by HHP treatment in combination.”
“Background: Several studies have reported that specimens from mediastinal lesions located adjacent to the esophagus can be sampled using an ultrasound bronchoscope instead of an ultrasound endoscope. Objectives:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of transesophageal bronchoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration using an ultrasound bronchoscope in patients with stage I/II sarcoidosis. Methods: Thirty-three patients suspected of having stage I/II sarcoidosis were included in this prospective study. Needle aspiration through JQ1 ic50 the esophagus using an ultrasound bronchoscope was performed for hilar and/or mediastinal lymph nodes. The final Rigosertib nmr diagnosis of sarcoidosis was based on clinicoradiological compatibility and pathological findings. Results: A total of 62 lymph nodes with a mean shortest diameter of 13.6 mm were examined. Of the 33 patients enrolled, 29 were given a final diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Four of the residual patients had other diseases (1 lung cancer, 1 tuberculosis, 2 non-specific lymphadenitis). Transesophageal bronchoscopic ultrasound-guided fine

needle aspiration showed noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas in 25 of 29 patients (86%; 95% confidence interval 73-100) with the final diagnosis of sarcoidosis. No complications were observed. Conclusions: Transesophageal bronchoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration is feasible, safe and accurate for the diagnosis of stage I/II sarcoidosis. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Study Design. Radiographic review.

Objective. To study changes in alignment and curvature of the cervical vertebral column in the sagittal plane, and to provide references for the orthopedic treatment of cervical kyphosis.

Summary and Background Data. There are few reports analyzing changes of the vertebral body itself or changes in their relationships between separate vertebrae.

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics [doi: 10 1063/1 3636365]“

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3636365]“
“In near infrared (NIR) spectra, there could be observed the baseline drift, background noise, scattering effects, and overlapped peaks. These errors can disturb the robustness and reliability of multivariate calibration models. Influences of spectral pretreatment methods on calibration

model were studied. The partial least squares (PLS) were applied for developing model of the precuring degree. The multiplicative scatter correction gave the best values for R-2 and RMSEC. R-2 was 0.96, RMSEC was 0.112, respectively. The method NIR and reference method were compared using Student’s t test (alpha = 0.05) for paired values, the result showed that there was no significant difference between the NIR method and the reference method. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Background: click here Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC(+)) and portal vein embolization (PVE) enables curative resection in more patients with colorectal-liver metastases (CRLM). However, after NC(+), structural alterations have been reported with the risk of post-operative hepatic failure. We undertook to determine if NC(+) toxicity limits future remnant liver (FRL) hypertrophy after PVE.

Methods: PVE was performed in 20 patients, 13 (65%) of whom previously

received a mean FOLFIRI (5-fluorouracil + leucovorin + irinotecan) regimen (NC(+)) of 6.6 cycles. The seven remaining patients served as the control group without NC (NC(-)).

Results: CRLM were bilateral in 69% (NC(+)) and 57% (NC(-)), and synchronous in 84% (NC(+)) and GSK1838705A ic50 14% (NC(-)). The FRL hypertrophy rate was 54.1% (NC(+)) and 43.7% (NC(-)) (P = 0.3). CRLM were unresectable in four of our 20 patients, i.e. group NC(+): one insufficient FRL hypertrophy and one severe steatosis; and group NC(-): two tumoral progressions. In both groups, the operative parameters were comparable except for pedicular clamping: 8 (NC(+)) and 36 min (NC(-)), respectively (P < 0.05). Also, the surgical outcome rate and hospital stay were comparable. No significant pathological difference was observed between the two groups. No mortality occurred in either group.

Conclusion: In view of our

limited experience, we conclude Combretastatin A4 nmr that hypertrophy of the non-embolized liver (FRL) is not altered after FOLFIRI-based NC.”
“Objective: To assess the alveolar bone formation after autogenous tooth transplantation by conventional radiographic method and digital subtraction radiography.

Study design: This retrospective study was done in 54 of 136 patients who received the third molar tooth transplantation and attended the first week, as well as the 1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up. Postoperative periapical radiographs were subsequently evaluated by direct visual interpretation and digital subtraction radiography. The data were analyzed by using McNemar test and 1-way repeated-measure analysis of variance as well as Bonferroni multiple comparison.

Longitudinal designs were used to examine test-retest reliability

Longitudinal designs were used to examine test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) statistics, smallest detectable difference (SDD)), and responsiveness (Pearson’s product moment correlation, ROC curve analysis; area under the ROC curve (AUC),

and minimally important change (MIC)). The DHI scores range from 0 to 100.

Results: Factor analysis revealed a different factor structure than the original DHI, resulting https://www.selleckchem.com/products/beta-nicotinamide-mononucleotide.html in dismissal of subscale scores in the DHI-N. Acceptable internal consistency was found for the total scale (alpha = 0.95). Concurrent correlations between the DHI-N and other related measures were moderate to high, highest with Vertigo Symptom Scale-short form-Norwegian version (r = 0.69), and lowest with preferred gait (r = -0.36). The DHI-N Nutlin-3a molecular weight demonstrated excellent ability to discriminate between participants with and without ‘disability’, AUC being 0.89 and best cut-off point = 29 points. Satisfactory test-retest reliability was demonstrated, and the

change for an individual should be >= 20 DHI-N points to exceed measurement error (SDD). Correlations between change scores of DHI-N and other self-report measures of functional health and symptoms were high (r = 0.50-0.57). Responsiveness of the DHI-N was excellent, AUC = 0.83, discriminating between self-perceived ‘improved’ versus ‘unchanged’

participants. The MIC was identified as 11 DHI-N points.

Conclusions: The DHI-N total scale demonstrated satisfactory measurement properties. This is the first study that has addressed and demonstrated responsiveness to important change of the DHI, and provided values of SDD and MIC to help interpret change scores.”
“Background: Paroxysmal hemicrania (PH) is a probably underreported primary headache disorder. It is characterized Selleck Ion Channel Ligand Library by repeated attacks of severe, strictly unilateral pain lasting 2 to 30 minutes localized to orbital, supraorbital, and temporal areas accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic features. The hallmark of PH is the absolute cessation of the headache with indomethacin. However, these all features may not be present in all cases and a few cases may remain unclassified according to the 2nd Edition of The International classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II) criteria for PH.

Methods: Twenty-two patients were included in this retrospective observation.

Results: We describe 17 patients, observed over six years, who fulfilled the ICHD-II criteria for PH. In parallel, we identified five more patients in whom one of the features of the diagnostic criteria for PH was missing. Two patients did not show any evidence of cranial autonomic feature during the attacks of headache.

For the slides coated with gelatin type B that could provide bett

For the slides coated with gelatin type B that could provide better cell growth, the transfection efficiency was observed to strongly depend on the amount of plasmid contained

HDAC inhibitor drugs within the transfection reagent in a dosage response. In the absence of any enhancers, the efficiency reached 20%, whereas in the presence of polyethylene glycol of MW 2000 or gelatin type A, the efficiency could be further enhanced to around 70%. When bPEI was replaced with dextrangrafted bPEI, a more efficient carrier for transfection in cell culture, very minimal levels of GEP positive cells were detected, suggesting that different factors might exist in transfecting cells in culture and those in microarrays for PEI-based vectors to achieve high efficiency. This Study showed that using bPEI combined with an enhancer as a gene delivery system could efficiently modulate cellular functions for the preparation of cell arrays. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 2221-2225, 2009″
“The primary purpose of the right ventricle and pulmonary circulation is gas exchange. Because gas exchange occurs

in thin, highly permeable alveolar membranes, pulmonary pressure must remain low to avoid pulmonary edema; because the right ventricle and the lungs are in series with the left ventricle and the systemic circulation, the entire cardiac selleck inhibitor output must pass through the lungs. This low pressure, high volume system, makes dramatically different demands on the right ventricle compared with the demands made on the left ventricle by the systemic circulation. Moreover, the right ventricle and pulmonary circulation must buffer dynamic changes in blood volume and flow resulting from respiration, positional changes, and changes in left ventricular cardiac output.

The

optimizations needed to meet these conflicting demands result in reduced capacity to compensate for increased afterload or pressure. Unfortunately, a large number of pathologic processes can result in acute and or chronic increases in afterload stress. As afterload stress rises, right heart failure may develop, and hemodynamic instability and death can occur abruptly. Several biochemical pathways have been identified learn more that may participate in adaptation or maladaptation to excessive pressure loads.”
“Background: Patients with a patent foramen ovale have a high prevalence of migraine with aura (MA). However, whether patients with an atrial septal defect (ASD) have a high prevalence of migraine remains unclear. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of migraine and its clinical characteristics in patients with ASD.

Findings: Ninety-five patients (age >= 20 years) who had undergone percutaneous ASD closure responded to a questionnaire used by neurologists to diagnose migraine either with or without aura.


“Ultralow dielectric permittivity (k=2 58) nanohybrid
<


“Ultralow dielectric permittivity (k=2.58) nanohybrid

dielectric film was obtained by dispersing 3.0 wt % mesoporous silicate (MCM-41) particles with nanosize hollow channels into polyimide (PI) selleck inhibitor polymer. The ultralow k value of the hybrid film can be mainly attributed to the low k value of MCM-41 itself and the small air gaps in the hybrid films. High volume resistivity and high breakdown strength were also observed for those films. At high concentration of MCM-41 loading (>3.0 wt %), the k values of the films increased significantly due to the contribution of strong interfacial polarization and interaction among MCM-41 particles. The ultralow k feature of the PI/MCM-41 nanohybrid films was explained well by Maxwell-Garnett and Bruggeman equations. The PI/MCM-41 nanohybrid film with good thermal stability as well as excellent dielectric properties can be considered as good candidate for advanced dielectric

materials.”
“Toxicological studies showed that trihalomethanes (THMs), the most abundant classes of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water, impaired male reproductive health, but epidemiological evidence is limited and inconsistent. This study aimed to examine the associations of baseline blood THMs with semen parameters and serum total testosterone in a Chinese population. We recruited 401 men seeking semen examination from the Reproductive Center of Tone Hospital in Wuhan, China between April 2011 and May 2012. Baseline blood concentrations of THMs, Liproxstatin-1 in vitro including chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM) were measured using SPME-GC/ECD method. Semen quality and serum total testosterone were analyzed. Multivariable linear regressions were used to assess the associations

of baseline blood THM concentrations with semen parameters and serum total testosterone levels. We found that baseline blood THM concentrations were not associated with decrements in sperm motility, sperm check details straight-line and curvilinear velocity. However, moderate levels of BDCM(beta=-0.13 million; 95% CI:-0.22, -0.03) and DBCM (beta=-4.74%; 95% CI:-8.07, -1.42) were associated with decreased sperm count and declined sperm linearity compared with low levels, respectively. Suggestive dose-response relationships were also observed between elevated blood TCM or Sigma THMs (sum of TCM, BDCM, DBCM and TBM) concentration and decreased sperm concentration (both p for trend = 0.07), and between elevated blood DBCM concentration and decreased serum total testosterone (p for trend = 0.07). Our results indicate that elevated THM exposure may lead to decreased sperm concentration and serum total testosterone. However, the effects of THM exposure on male reproductive health still warrant further studies in humans. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

, J Toxicol Pathol 25, 233-239, 2012) The present study assessed

, J Toxicol Pathol 25, 233-239, 2012). The present study assessed long-term responses of male and female Fischer 344 rats to multiple administrations of magnetite. Ten-week-old male and female Fischer 344 rats (n=20/group) were exposed to a total of 13 quadweekly intermittent intratracheal spray instillations of magnetite during the experimental period of 52 weeks, at doses of 0, 0.2 (low), 1.0 (medium) and 5.0 (high-dose) mg/kg body weight per administration. Absolute and relative lung weights of the high-dose group were significantly higher than those of the

control group. Macroscopically, slight enlargement and scattered black patches were recognized in the lungs and the lung-associated lymph Selleckchem ERK inhibitor nodes of the high-dose group. Histopathologically, infiltration of macrophages phagocytosing magnetite (all dose groups) and of chronic inflammatory cells (medium- and high-dose males and high-dose females),

alveolar bronchiolization and granuloma (high-dose group) were observed. In addition, alveolar hyperplasias were observed in some rats of the high-dose group, and cytoplasmic overexpression of beta-catenin protein was immunohistochemically found in such lesions. The present results clearly show that instilled magnetite causes chronic inflammatory responses in the lung. These responses occur in a dose-dependent manner without www.selleckchem.com/products/ly2606368.html apparent differences among sexes”
“Electrokinetic properties and morphology of PDMS microfluidic chips intended for bioassays are studied. The chips are fabricated by a casting method followed by polymerization bonding. Microchannels are coated with 1% solution of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in Tris buffer. Albumin passively adsorbs on the PDMS surface. Electrokinetic characteristics (electro-osmotic velocity, electro-osmotic

mobility, and zeta potential) of the coated PDMS Evofosfamide clinical trial channels are experimentally determined as functions of the electric field strength and the characteristic electrolyte concentration. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of the surface reveals a “”peak and ridge”" structure of the protein layer and an imperfect substrate coating. On the basis of the AFM observation, several topologies of the BSA-PDMS surface are proposed. A nonslip mathematical model of the electro-osmotic flow is then numerically analyzed. It is found that the electrokinetic characteristics computed for a channel with the homogeneous distribution of a fixed electric charge do not fit the experimental data. Heterogeneous distribution of the fixed electric charge and the surface roughness is thus taken into account. When a flat PDMS surface with electric charge heterogeneities is considered, the numerical results are in very good agreement with our experimental data.

It is shown that

the sensitivity of assays is affected by

It is shown that

the sensitivity of assays is affected by the size of nanoparticles of colloidal gold used as a marker of antibodies, load intensity of antibodies of colloidal gold in conjugates, the type of analytical membranes, as well as the chemical Selleck SB202190 composition of buffer solutions used for the storage of conjugates and immunoassay analysis. The detection limit of monoparametric immunoassay tests is 0.5 ng/ml; that of multiparametric assays, 5.0 ng/ml. The developed immunoassay can be used for rapid assay of product quality, for grade control of botulinum toxins in pharmaceuticals, and environmental monitoring.”
“Although prospective studies have failed to show the therapeutic effect of lymphadenectomy in the surgical treatment of endometrial cancer, several retrospective studies including the SEPAL study revealed the survival effect of lymphadenectomy. To prospectively investigate the survival benefit of para-aortic lymphadenectomy shown in the SEPAL study, we are proposing a new concept of a randomized phase III trial. An appropriate study population will be selected ZD1839 research buy according to the preoperative assessments (evaluation of myometrial invasion and cervical invasion with magnetic resonance imaging, extrauterine

spread with computed tomography, and histological type and grade by pathological evaluation) to estimate the risk of lymph node metastasis. Patients relevant to potential International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (2008) stage IB, II and III diseases

will be eligible, and randomly assigned to two arms: pelvic lymphadenectomy alone (control), or pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy (experimental). After initial surgery, patients with postoperative pathological risk factors for recurrence will receive adjuvant chemotherapy. Because we aim to investigate the therapeutic significance of primary treatments, including surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy, the primary end-point could be recurrence-free survival. One of the most important issues to successfully perform this prospective study is to assure the quality of lymphadenectomy (extent and area), which could be evaluated based on the CBL0137 purchase number of harvested nodes and objective evaluation of dissected area by videos and/or photos.”
“Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are one of the most commonly used methods for reversible contraception. This article reports a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder which exhibited a migrated IUD into the bladder. A 66-year-old woman with a 26-year history of IUD use admitted to the clinic with the chief complaint of intermittent macroscopic haematuria. Clinical examination raised a suspicion bladder carcinoma, so cystoscopy and histological sampling were performed and squamous cell carcinoma of bladder was diagnosed, which was related to chronic irritation by a migrated IUD.

Surgeons involved in the development of this guideline suggested

Surgeons involved in the development of this guideline suggested that retroperitoneal

lymphadenectomy may be a useful option for patients at high risk of relapse. this website There is currently insufficient evidence from prospective trials to support or refute this position. (C) 2009 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Study Design. Validation of a prognostic DNA marker panel.

Objective. The goals of this study were to develop and test the negative predictive value of a prognostic DNA test for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and to establish clinically meaningful endpoints for the test.

Summary of Background Data. Clinical features do not adequately predict which children diagnosed with minimal or mild AIS will have the progressive form of the disease; genetic markers associated with curve progression might

offer clinically useful prognostic insights.

Methods. Logistic regression was used to develop an algorithm to predict spinal curve progression incorporating genotypes for 53 single nucleotide polymorphisms and the patient’s presenting spinal curve (Cobb angle). Three cohorts with known AIS outcomes were selected to reflect intended-use populations with various rates of AIS progression: 277 low-risk females representing a screening cohort, 257 females find more representing higher risk patients followed at referral centers, and 163 high risk males. DNA was extracted from saliva, and genotypes were determined using TaqMan assays. AIS Prognostic Test scores

ranging from 1 to 200 were calculated.

Results. C188-9 mw Low-risk scores (<41) had negative predictive values of 100%, 99%, and 97%, respectively, in the tested populations. In the risk model, we used cutoff scores of 50 and 180 to identify 75% of patients as low-risk (<1% risk of progressing to a surgical curve), 24% as intermediate-risk, and 1% as high-risk.

Conclusion. Prognostic testing for AIS has the potential to reduce psychological trauma, serial exposure to diagnostic radiation, unnecessary treatments, and direct and indirect costs-of-care related to scoliosis monitoringin low-risk patients. Further improvements in test performance are expected as the optimal markers for each locus are identified and the underlying biologic pathways are better understood. The validity of the test applies only to white AIS patients; versions of the test optimized for AIS patients of other races have yet to be developed.”
“The role of artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) as salvage option following failed anti-incontinence surgery is unclear.

Database review and telephone survey were conducted to review patient satisfaction, surgical outcomes, device failure and revision rates.

A total of 29 female patients received AUS following failed anti-incontinence surgeries.

[doi:10 1063/1 3518579]“
“Objective: [(18)F]Fluorodeoxygluco

[doi:10.1063/1.3518579]“
“Objective: [(18)F]Fluorodeoxyglucose positron

emission tomography ([(18)F]FDG-PET) is a valuable method for detecting focal brain dysfunction associated with epilepsy. Evidence suggests that a progressive decrease Nepicastat ic50 in [(18)F]FDG uptake occurs in the epileptogenic cortex with an increase in the duration of epilepsy. In this study, our aim was to use statistical parametric mapping (SPM) to test the validity of this relationship in a retrospective study of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).

Methods: [(18)F]FDG-PET scans of 46 adult patients with pharmacoresistant unilateral TLE (25 RTLE and 21 LTLE) were subjected to SPM analysis.

Results: Forty-six patients were diagnosed with nonlesional TLE, 16 of

whom had hippocampal sclerosis (HS). The average duration of epilepsy was IPI-145 research buy 17.4 +/- 12.3 years (3-46 years), <5 years in 10 patients and >= 10 years in 30 patients. Visual analysis oft [(18)F]FDG-PET scans revealed hypometabolism in the epileptogenic temporal cortex in 31(67%) patients. After SPM analysis of all [(18)F]FDG-PET images, hypometabolism was unilateral and reported in lateral and mesial structures of the epileptogenic temporal cortex in addition to the ipsilateral fusi form and middle occipital gyrus. Subsequent analysis revealed that temporal lobe hypometabolism was present only in patients with longer epilepsy duration ( 10 years) in para-hippocampal gyrus, uncus, and middle and superior temporal gyrus (P < 0.05 corrected). Epilepsy duration was inversely correlated with decreased glucose uptake in the inferior temporal gyrus, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus of the epileptogenic temporal cortex (P < 0.05). Age at seizure onset did not affect the correlation between epilepsy duration and glucose uptake except in the inferior temporal gyrus (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Voxel-based mapping supports the assertion that glucose hypometabolism of the epileptogenic temporal lobe cortex and other neighboring cortical regions increases with longer epilepsy duration

in TLE. (C) 2009 Elsevier find protocol Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Patients with genotype I chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with late virological response to therapy have low sustained viral response (SVR) with standard 48 weeks of therapy and may benefit from extended therapy. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of five studies to compare the outcome of 48 weeks vs 72 weeks treatment in treatment naive chronic hepatitis C genotype I patients with late virological response. The end of treatment response with extended 72 weeks of treatment compared to standard 48 weeks of treatment was similar 48% and 56%, respectively, with pooled odds ratio (OR) (0.85; 95% CI 0.52-1.37). However, the SVR rates were higher with 72 weeks of treatment compared to 48 weeks treatment 32%vs 25% with pooled OR of 1.67 in favour of extended duration therapy (95% CI 1.16-2.40).