This is consistent with findings by Li et al [4, 12] that showed up-regulation of ECRG4 inhibited cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. This suggests that the biological functions of ECRG4 are not unique to a specific cancer type, but likely common among multiple cancers. Our study has revealed a novel function of ECRG4 in suppression of glioma BYL719 concentration cell migration and invasion, implicating its potential involvement in cancer metastasis. This hypothesis should to be
further validated in an in vivo animal model. The observation that ECRG4 regulates multiple cellular processes such as cell growth, cell cycle, migration, and invasion in multiple check details cancers implies it is an important therapeutic target for multiple human cancers, including glioma. NF-kB is a transcription factor that plays a key role in carcinogenesis by controlling
expression of several oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, growth factors and cell adhesion molecules [15–17]. Li et al  previously reported that ECRG4 overexpression could suppress endogenous expression of the nuclear factor (NF-kB), which may have contributed to inhibition of esophageal cancer cell growth. Based on their finding, we speculated ECRG4 might also be involved in glioma cell growth suppression by regulating the NF- B pathway. Consistent with this hypothesis, we showed that overexpression of ECRG4 in glioma U251 cells markedly downregulated expression of NF-κB by western blot. However, TCL further investigation is necessary to selleck chemicals llc determine
the exact role of ECRG4 in the NF-κB pathway within the context of glioma. In conclusion, we found that the ECRG4′s role as a tumor suppressor was supported by our observation that its expression is decreased in glioma. Furthermore, we applied gain-of-function approach to examine the biological processes regulated by ECRG4 in glioma cells. We demonstrated the functional importance of ECRG4 in suppression of glioma cell growth, migration, and invasion. Finally, we found that overexpression of ECRG4 could inhibit expression of NF-kB which may provide a mechanism explaining ECRG4′s role in controlling glioma cell proliferation. Acknowledgements This project was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30870970), Jilin Provincial Science and Technology Projects (No. 20050118, 20090513, 200705358). References 1. Su T, Liu H, Lu S: Cloning and identification of cDNA fragments related to human esophageal cancer. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 1998,20(4):254–257.PubMed 2. Bi MX, Han WD, Lu SX: Using lab on-line to clone and identify the esophageal cancer related gene 4. Sheng Wu Hua Xue Yu Sheng Wu Wu Li Xue Bao (Shanghai) 2001,33(3):257–261. 3. Yue CM, Deng DJ, Bi MX, Guo LP, Lu SH: Expression of ECRG4, a novel esophageal cancer-related gene, downregulated by CpG island hypermethylation in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol 2003,9(6):1174–1178.PubMed 4.