Conclusion: Our findings indicate that smooth muscle cells display an altered transcriptome at atherosclerosis-prone locations before actual lesion development. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“The present study investigated the contribution of episodic memory processes mediated by the medial temporal lobes to solving open-ended problems: problems for which standard solutions or set procedures for arriving at solutions AZD1080 nmr do not exist. Patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and excisions (TLE), older adults and control participants were asked to describe detailed solutions to various open-ended, social scenarios. TLE patients and older adults, both having deficits in episodic memory, provided fewer steps relevant
to the given solution than their comparison group. Segmenting the descriptions into details using the methods of the Autobiographical Interview, we also found that patients with TLE and older adults provided fewer internal (episodic) details but a similar number of external (semantic) details compared to their control group. These findings are the first to demonstrate that processes underlying episodic memory, in particular those enabling the retrieval of experiential detail and episodic simulation may contribute to open-ended problem solving. Given that we examined groups with medial temporal lobe lesions and known episodic memory dysfunction, these
results further suggest that the negative consequences of episodic memory loss Ro-3306 manufacturer resulting Selleck Bleomycin from damage to or deterioration of the medial temporal lobes extend beyond that of memory to include other domains, such as problem solving. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Extracellular matrix deposition is the main factor inducing stenotic lesions in arterial grafts. Lysyl oxidases (LOX) play a key role in stabilizing collagen and elastin. Objective: To examine the repair response to arterial allografts in terms of LOX expression and collagen/elastin deposition using LOX inhibitors. Methods: Lewis/Fisher-344 rats were used as donors/recipients.
Donor segments were grafted to the right iliac artery of recipients and retrieved 14/30 (short-term) or 90/180 days (long-term) after surgery. One group of animals was injected with a potent irreversible LOX inhibitor daily for 30 days. Results: Intimal hyperplasia increased in thickness until 90/180 days postsurgery. Elastin showed great expression in the neointima at 14/30 days and in the media at 90/180 days. LOX/LOXL1 were similarly expressed in the arterial wall during the first month. In the long term, their overexpression was confined to neointimal layers. At 14 days, collagen types I/III were identified in the grafts. The neointima acquired collagen I over time. In the group of animal treated with the LOX inhibitor, intimal hyperplasia was significantly inhibited. Conclusion: LOX were overexpressed in late stages of intimal hyperplasia in the allografts.