Error bars represent standard error of the means. Probiotic treatments that significantly differ from control are indicated by * for P ≤ 0.05. Propionic SARA was characterized in C wethers by a mean ruminal CBL-0137 mw pH of 5.67, total VFA concentration of 114 mM, 22.5% of propionate and less than 3 mM of lactate (Table 3). These
findings are in agreement with earlier reported studies on propionic SARA induced by intraruminal dosing of beet pulp  and in normally fed cattle [44, 45]. Probiotic supplementation did not affect significantly the microbial composition, polysaccharidase activities and fermentation patterns that remained similar among treatments (Figure 4). For amylase activity, this could be explained by the fact that beet pulp does not contain starch but sucrose, and that the development of amylase activity requires starch availability . Without clear effects on microbial and fermentation patterns, explanations are still lacking on how the probiotics increased mean (+ 0.27 pH units on average, for P and Lr + P) and minimum ruminal buy P5091 pH (0.29 pH units on average, for P and Lr + P). In contrast to qPCR, which showed subtle changes in the bacterial community, DGGE analysis revealed that bacterial structure was affected by probiotic supplementation, insofar as supplemented wethers clustered together with 83.2 and 86.4% similarity for butyric and propionic SARA, respectively (Figure 2). These complementary results indicate that shifts in the
bacterial communities may result in unchanged fermentation patterns and that these shifts concerned bacterial groups that differ from those targeted by qPCR. Also, similarly to lactic acidosis, the richness index was greater at d3 than at d1, with an SB-715992 average of 26 vs. 18 and 27 vs. 22 bands for butyric and propionic SARA, respectively. This result conflicts with recent work reporting a decrease in bacterial richness when SARA was induced in dairy cows . This discordance could be due to the mode of acidosis induction (intraruminal dosing vs. normal feeding) or the nature of the samples, Tobramycin as DNA extraction was achieved from ruminal liquid in the reported study, whereas
we used whole ruminal content (liquid + solid). Also, wethers supplemented with probiotics exhibited a higher richness index than controls, with 31 vs. 21 and 31 vs. 23 bands on average for butyric and propionic SARA, respectively. For butyric SARA, an intense band was observed with Lp + P. Sequencing and identification of the band can establish a causal link between a species and changes observed in pH and xylanase activity. As for lactic acidosis, further sequencing experiments are required to enhance our knowledge of how SARA and probiotics affect the rumen bacterial structure and activity. Among the few studies published on the use of bacterial probiotics, only two [47, 48] tested the effects of Lactobacillus and Propionibacterium strains on ruminal fermentation during SARA. One of the studies tested P.