Intolerance to side effects of voriconazole (69 2%) was the main

Intolerance to side effects of voriconazole (69.2%) was the main reason for switching to alternatives. Beyond 6 months post-LTx, most (51.8%) did not employ antifungal prophylaxis. Fifteen centers (26.0%) conducted routine antifungal therapeutic drug monitoring during prophylactic period. There are differences in strategies employed between U.S. and European centers. Most respondents indicated a need for antifungal prophylactic guidelines. In comparison to earlier findings,

there was a major shift toward prophylaxis with voriconazole and an increased use of echinocandins, posaconazole and inhaled lipid formulation AmB.”
“Background: In several studies, since high and low birth weights are demonstrated as associated with obesity in childhood, these values should be followed up and documented carefully.

Objective: The aim of this retrospective cohort study is to demonstrate the variation on body mass index outcomes of large (LGA), small

(SGA), appropriate (AGA) for gestational age infants from birth to the end of fourth year of age and the effects of breastfeeding duration on these outcomes.

Methods and results: Ulixertinib ic50 Four hundred and seven infants were recruited in the study (304 AGA, 85 LGA, 18 SGA infants). LGA was frequent in boys and SGA in girls (p=0.001). The mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus did have LGA infants (10.0% vs. 3.3%) (p=0.022). The SGA infants performed rapid catch-up growth in the second month while the LGA infants performed catch-down growth in the ninth month. After the first 4 months, there was no difference on the values of BMI depending on breastfeeding time, less or more than 4 months, on the basis of the AGA and LGA infants. However, the body mass index (BMI) of LGA infants breastfed more than 12 months were not different from the AGA; unless the breastfeeding ceased

earlier, the means of BMI remained significantly higher until 3 years.

Conclusion: Consequently, long duration of breastfeeding might protect LGA infants from childhood obesity risk.”
“Both observational and experimental GM6001 datasheet studies have documented drastic reductions in salamanders after forest harvesting. Yet, the amount of time until salamander populations rebound and the factors limiting recovery after harvesting are unknown. We compared the effects of six oak regeneration practices to a control, representing a disturbance gradient from no treatment to silvicultural clearcut, on the relative abundance and reproductive demography of terrestrial salamanders through 13-years post-harvest. Following the experimental disturbance, relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders in treatments that opened the canopy were significantly and persistently lower than in either untreated control stands or midstory herbicide treatments. In general, this trend persisted through 9-13 years after treatment.

On the contrary, at a given stress voltage, the threshold voltage

On the contrary, at a given stress voltage, the threshold voltage degradation and stress-induced leakage current degradation in HfAlO samples are higher, indicating shorter device lifetime compared to the HfO2 samples of same EOT. In addition, the mechanism of charge trapping in the oxide as well as at the Si/SiO2 interface of both capacitors is investigated and a model is proposed. A similar generation kinetics was observed for stress-induced oxide trapped positive charges and interface states in either of the devices. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3148297]“

(miRNAs) play important roles in pancreas development and selleck chemical in regulation of insulin expression in the adult. Here we show that loss of miRNAs activity in beta-cells during embryonic development results in lower beta-cell mass and in impaired glucose tolerance. Dicer1-null cells initially constitute a significant portion of the total beta-cell population. However, during postnatal development, Dicer1-null cells are depleted. Furthermore, wild-type beta cells are repopulating the islets in complex compensatory dynamics. Because loss of Dicer1 is also associated with changes in the distribution of membranous E-cadherin, we hypothesized

that E-cadherin activity may play a role in beta cell survival or islet CX-6258 architecture. However, genetic loss of E-cadherin function does not impair islet architecture, suggesting that miRNAs likely function through other or redundant effectors in the endocrine

“In addition to their role as man-made membranes, vesicles continue to be investigated as carriers for drug delivery. While most research focuses on their injectable properties, here a new delivery strategy is proposed. It is shown that spermatozoa can transport vesicles of variable composition. For human spermatozoa, the vesicles started to show binding after 20 mol% of the nonbinding vesicle backbone lipids were substituted with positive, negative, cerebroside or ganglioside lipids. Vesicle binding is a dynamic process with constant ‘on’ and ‘off’ binding. The physiological and motility attributes of the spermatozoa are not affected by the attached vesicles. Sperm swimming characteristics changed only marginally. Also, the activation status of the BVD-523 purchase acrosomal membrane, tested with the fluorescent probe Pisum sativum agglutinin, was not affected by vesicle binding. Moreover, the hyaluronic acid-binding test showed that viable, fully developed spermatozoa will attach and remain bound to hyaluronic acid-coated slides regardless of vesicle binding. Therefore a new ‘hybrid’ delivery system was created with human spermatozoa, and tested with a mouse IVF system. Large unilamellar vesicles physisorbed to mouse spermatozoa can not only penetrate the mouse oocytes in these proof-of-principle experiments, but also deliver the cargo placed within the vesicles. (C) 2013, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

c 2010 American Institute of Physics [doi: 10 1063/1 3310420]“

c 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3310420]“
“Background: Although the function of human melanocytes is well characterized at cellular and molecular levels, the mechanism of the regulation of the life cycle (proliferation, differentiation, and cell death) of human melanocytes is not fully understood.

Objective: This Study aims to clarify what factors are involved in regulating the life

cycle of human melanocytes using serum-free culture system.

Methods: Human epidermal melanocytes were cultured in a serum-free growth medium supplemented with several kinds of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones and the effects of these factors on the life cycle of melanocytes were investigated in detail.

Results: Of the factors tested, endothelin-1 (ET-1) stimulated the proliferation of melanoblasts and melanocytes in the presence of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-elevating factor such as dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP) and of basic fibroblast AZD5153 price growth factor(bFGF). ET-1 also stimulated the proliferation and differentiation of human melanocytes in the presence of DBcAMP. Moreover, stem cell factor (SCF) stiniulited the

proliferation of melanoblasts and melanocytes synergistically with ET-1. The removal of ET-1 and SCF from the culture medium greatly inhibited the proliferation of melanocytes followed by apoptotic cell death.

Conclusion: These results suggest that the life cycle of human melanocytes is regulated CHIR-99021 by ET-1 and SCF in synergy with cAMP and bFGF. (C) 2009 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Heterojunction with intrinsic

thin layer or “”HIT”" solar cells are considered favorable for large-scale manufacturing of solar modules, as they combine the high efficiency of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells, with the low cost of amorphous silicon technology. In this article, based on experimental data published by Sanyo, we simulate the performance of a series of HIT cells on N-type crystalline silicon substrates with hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) emitter layers, to gain insight into carrier transport and the general functioning of these AG-881 molecular weight devices. Both single and double HIT structures are modeled, beginning with the initial Sanyo cells having low open circuit voltages but high fill factors, right up to double HIT cells exhibiting record values for both parameters. The one-dimensional numerical modeling program “”Amorphous Semiconductor Device Modeling Program”" has been used for this purpose. We show that the simulations can correctly reproduce the electrical characteristics and temperature dependence for a set of devices with varying I-layer thickness. Under standard AM1.5 illumination, we show that the transport is dominated by the diffusion mechanism, similar to conventional P/N homojunction solar cells, and tunneling is not required to describe the performance of state-of-the art devices.

7-mg deslorelin implant Six healthy, adult dogs of various breed

7-mg deslorelin implant. Six healthy, adult dogs of various breeds and body weights were implanted with deslorelin (Suprelorin, Virbac) and followed every 2 weeks with semen and blood collections. Semen quality remained stable or even improved during the first month following treatment and then showed a progressive decline until the end of the study, except for sperm morphology, which was unaffected by the treatment. Complete sterility

was achieved on post-treatment days 70, 84, 60, 23, 51 and 40 for dogs find more 1 to 6, respectively. The 4.7 mg deslorelin implant caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in serum testosterone as well as sperm motility. Our results (i) confirm the efficacy of deslorelin in causing reversible sterility in male dogs, (ii) confirm and provide details about endocrine and seminal parameters involved in this process and (iii) contribute to

define the interval between treatment and achievement of complete sterility. Practitioners should be aware that such interval may be longer than 2 months in some cases, and that fertility may actually be increased during the first 24 weeks post-treatment.”
“Background Mechanisms underlying a reduction in coronary flow reserve (CFR) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), especially apical HCM (ApHCM), are elusive. This study set out to evaluate mechanisms underlying a reduction in CFR in 2 HCM subtypes. Hypothesis Mechanisms for CFR reduction in HCM are different between the 2 subtypes of HCM. Methods Thirty-one patients with asymmetrical septal hypertrophy (ASH), 43 with ApHCM, and 27 healthy volunteers were recruited. Mean diastolic coronary

flow velocity (CFmv) was monitored before and after adenosine infusion by transthoracic echocardiography in the mid-to-distal left anterior descending coronary artery. Coronary flow reserve was defined as the ratio between CFmv before and after adenosine infusion. Left ventricular mass index and stress myocardial perfusion were assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Results Selleck AG-881 Although basal CFmv was higher in ASH patients than in healthy controls (P < 0.05), it was similar in ApHCM patients and controls (P = 0.85). Poststress CFmv was significantly lower in both HCM subtypes than in controls (P < 0.05). Consequently, CFR was higher in controls than in ASH or ApHCM patients (P < 0.05). When HCM patients were stratified into 2 groups based on the presence of CFR impairment, no difference was observed between these 2 groups in terms of left ventricular mass index by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified basal CFmv as the only independent variable associated with CFR reduction in HCM (r2 = 0.49, P < 0.001).

Finger dislocations should be reduced as quickly as possible

Finger dislocations should be reduced as quickly as possible

and concurrent soft tissue injuries treated appropriately. Referral to a hand specialist is needed if a dislocation cannot be reduced; is unstable following reduction; or involves significant ligament, tendon, or soft tissue injury. Some common finger fractures can be treated conservatively with appropriate reduction and immobilization. Referral to a hand specialist is required if a fracture is unstable, involves a large portion (greater than 30 percent) of the intra-articular surface, or has significant rotation. (Am Fam Physician. 2012;85 (8): 805-810. Copyright (C) 2012 American Academy of Family Physicians.)”
“Klebsiella pneumoniae produces 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) from glycerol with oxidation of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) to 3-HP in a reaction catalyzed by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). In the present study, two putative ALDHs of K. pneumoniae, VX-689 datasheet YneI and YdcW were

identified and characterized. Recombinant YneI was specifically active on 3-HPA and preferred NAD(+) as a cofactor, whereas YdcW exhibited broad substrate specificity and preferred NADP(+) as a cofactor. Overexpression of ALDHs in the glycerol oxidative pathway-deficient mutant K. pneumoniae AK resulted in a significant increase in 3-HP production upon shake-flask culture. The final titers of 3-HP were 2.4 and 1.8 g L-1 by recombinants overexpressing YneI and YdcW, respectively. Deletion of the ALDH gene from K. pneumoniae did not affect the extent of 3-HP synthesis, implying Compound C mw non-specific activity of ALDHs on 3-HPA. The ALDHs might play major roles in detoxifying the aldehyde generated

in glycerol metabolism.”
“Cancer survivors are at an increased risk of a second primary cancer, partly due to unhealthy behaviours. In a cohort of adults (recruitment: 1999-2003; follow-up – linkage with population-based cancer registry: up to 2009) we compared the baseline exposure to smoking, alcohol and dietary intake and physical activity between: cancer survivors (CS) cancer diagnosis before baseline (n=53); no cancer (NC) participants – without cancer diagnosis at baseline or during see more follow-up (n=2261); latent cancer (LC) participants without cancer diagnosis at baseline but diagnosed during follow-up (n=139). Age-, sex-and education-adjusted prevalences and means were computed, as applicable.

The prevalence of current smoking was nearly 20% among CS and NC (approximately four cigarettes per day) and 30% in LC (seven cigarettes per day). LC had the highest average alcohol intake (25.5 g/day) and NC the lowest (17.0 g/day). The proportion of participants reporting sports practice was higher for CS (50%) than for NC or LC (approximately 33%). CS and NC had higher fruit/vegetable consumption than LC (4.2 and 4.4 vs. 3.8 servings per day).

After the sensory aura, migrainous headaches occurred with nausea

After the sensory aura, migrainous headaches occurred with nausea and photophobia. selleck In the postmenopausal period, she no longer had sensory aura, and her headache pattern changed and became less severe. Her physical and neurologic exams as well as electroencephalography, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and conventional angiography were all normal. She fulfilled the diagnosis of pure menstrual migraine with typical sensory aura. To our knowledge, this is the first formal case report of pure menstrual migraine with aura.”
“Results on blends containing different ingredients have revived the interest on the interaction

parameter and crosslink density of structures that contain soft fillers. Composite blend of natural rubber and styrene butadiene rubber loaded with the percolation concentration of high abrasion furnace carbon black and different concentrations with paraffin wax were prepared. The applicability of the blends for liquid diffusion has been examined through the changes in the interaction parameter and the crosslink density at different temperatures. The transport mechanism through the vulcanized blends is governed by Fickian diffusion law at room temperatures and it becomes non-Fickian at higher temperatures. The diffusion coefficients were calculated and found to have an

activated behavior with temperature from which the activation energy was calculated. The change in entropy, enthalpy, and Gibbs free energy are also studied at different temperatures. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, PND-1186 Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 112: 3232-3240,2009″
“Intubation without prior administration of muscle relaxants is a common practice in children. However, succinylcholine may

be considered as the golden standard for optimizing intubating conditions. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify drug combinations that Copanlisib supplier included induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane or propofol. Our aim was to select drug combinations that yield excellent intubating conditions =80%; we identified six combinations in children aged 19 years. Sevoflurane with remifentanil (1 or 2 mu g center dot kg-1), lidocaine (2 mg center dot kg-1), or propofol (2 mg center dot kg-1) as the adjuvant shared the following characteristics: premedication with midazolam and/or ketamine, long sevoflurane exposure time, high inspired and endtidal sevoflurane concentration, and assisted ventilation. One combination using sevoflurane with propofol (3 mg center dot kg-1) without premedication, with shorter sevoflurane exposure time, and spontaneous breathing indicated that propofol may be the adjuvant of choice for a rapid sevoflurane induction. The only adjuvant identified in propofol induction was remifentanil (4 mu g center dot kg-1). No serious adverse events were reported with these combinations.

Reasons for dose-modifications were multi-factorial, and were pri

Reasons for dose-modifications were multi-factorial, and were primarily related to catheter complications and chemotherapy toxicities. The number of clinical Selleck Proteasome inhibitor encounters was high, and they were primarily related to admissions for inpatient IP chemotherapy and follow-up clinic visits.

Conclusions: Treatment-related toxicities and complications were common in women with ovarian cancer who received IP chemotherapy. Use of

IP chemotherapy results in multiple clinical encounters, such as outpatient clinic visits and inpatient admissions. Nursing is a critical part of the interdisciplinary approach in caring for women treated with IP chemotherapy. Interdisciplinary teams with high levels of knowledge and skills related to IP chemotherapy administration are needed to manage treatment-related toxicities and complications, and support multiple clinical encounters during treatment. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This paper presents an improved

theoretical description of the mode-mismatched thermal lens effect using models that account for heat transport both within the sample and out to the surrounding coupling medium. Analytical and numerical finite element analysis (FEA) solutions are compared and subsequently used to model the thermal lens effect that would be observed using continuous laser excitation. FEA model results were found selleck chemical to be in excellent agreement with the analytical solutions. The model results show that heat transfer to the air coupling medium introduces only a minor effect when compared with the solution obtained without considering axial air-sample heat flux for practical examples. On the other hand, the thermal lens created in the air coupling fluid has a relatively more significant effect on the time-dependent

photothermal lens signals. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3309762]“
“A 46-year-old white female underwent a left hemipelvectomy for chondrosarcoma. She presented with total incontinence and a bulging vaginal mass. Exam confirmed Dinaciclib complete transurethral bladder eversion that was addressed with transvaginal multilayer bladder neck closure and suprapubic tube placement. Eventually she underwent abdominal hysterectomy, mesh sacral colpopexy, and catheterizable stoma creation. Patient is continent of urine 3 months postoperatively. We present the first reported case of bladder eversion after hemipelvectomy and propose possible pathophysiologic mechanisms.”
“The glyoxylate bypass allows Escherichia coli to grow on carbon sources with only two carbons by bypassing the loss of carbons as CO(2) in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The flux toward this bypass is regulated by the phosphorylation of the enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) by a bifunctional kinase-phosphatase called IDHKP.

Hemodialysis/hemofiltration is only considered in chronic kidney

Hemodialysis/hemofiltration is only considered in chronic kidney disease stage 4/5 patients when an access is available. The other medications or techniques for reducing CIN risk are still unclear. CIN is a potentially preventable clinical condition. A careful review of published reports gives us a deeper

understanding of CIN Vorinostat supplier and a greater chance of decreasing its risk. Copyright (C) 2013 Elsevier Taiwan LLC and the Chinese Medical Association. All rights reserved.”
“Crown gall of grapevine is an economically important disease in all areas where grapes are grown, but it is particularly severe in regions with cold climates. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to compare available Agrobacterium primer sets and identify a more reliable PCR analysis that can detect tumorigenic and non-pathogenic A. vitis and A. tumefaciens Torin 1 datasheet strains involved in the crown gall disease of grapevines in Iran and (2) to detect the genetic diversity of these strains by insertion sequence 50 (IS50) PCR as the genetic marker. Based on the results of morphological, physiological, biochemical, and pathogenicity

tests and amplification of the virD2 gene fragment and subsequent comparison of IS50-PCR fingerprints of the strains, we identified 27 of all 40 strains tested as tumorigenic A. vitis, three strains as non-tumorigenic A. vitis, and ten strains as tumorigenic A. tumefaciens. The similarity of all pairwise combinations was determined using Jaccard’s coefficient, and cluster analysis was performed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) clustering. On the basis of the fingerprint patterns generated by IS50-PCR,, the isolated strains were differentiated into four clusters (A-D) at the 60% similarity level. These four clusters could be further divided into several subgroups at the 80% similarity level. These results demonstrate that there is a wide variation in the sensitivity patterns of different Agrobacterium strains to different antibiotics.”
“We report the case of a 44-year-old male with a right-sided aortic arch who presented with dissection extending from his distal arch to his left common iliac

artery. He was initially managed conservatively, but later became symptomatic with back pain; enlargement of the descending thoracic aorta was demonstrated Fer-1 on computed tomography scanning. He underwent staged repair of the aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta with the elephant trunk procedure – two operations one year apart, each time making a good postoperative recovery. (c) 2011 Published by European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Our previous study had demonstrated that verterbral artery hypoplasia (VAH) contribute to ipsilateral vestibular dysfunction. The aim of this study was to test if VAH contributes to prognosis of vestibular neuronitis (VN) through presumed regional malperfusion.

Materials and Methods: An institutional review board-approved, HI

Materials and Methods: An institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective review of 991 cases of consecutive 9-or 11-gauge stereotactic VABB performed during a 65-month period revealed 147 cases of atypia. One pathologist performed a blinded review of the results of procedures performed to assess for calcifications and confirmed ADH in 101 cases with subsequent surgical excision. Each large duct or terminal duct-lobular unit containing ADH was considered a focus and counted. Postbiopsy mammograms were reviewed to determine whether all calcifications were removed. Upgrade to malignancy was determined from excisional biopsy pathology

reports. Upgrade rates as a function of both number of foci and presence or absence of residual calcifications were calculated and compared by using chi(2) tests.

Results: Upgrade to malignancy occurred NU7441 clinical trial in 20 (19.8%) of the 101 cases. The upgrade

selleckchem rate was significantly higher in cases of three or more foci of ADH (15 [28%] of 53 cases) than in cases of fewer than three foci (five [10%] of 48 cases) (P = .02). Upgrade rates were similar, regardless of whether all mammographic calcifications were removed (seven [17%] of 41 cases) or all were not removed (nine [20%] of 45 cases) (P = .77). Upgrade occurred in two (12%) of 17 cases in which there were fewer than three ADH foci and all calcifications were removed.

Conclusion: The upgrade rate is significantly higher when ADH involves at least three foci. Surgical excision is recommended even when ADH involves fewer than three foci and all mammographic calcifications have been removed, because the upgrade

rate is 12%.”
“We use two different techniques to derive the two parameters describing conduction electron scattering and spin-flipping at sputtered Al/Cu interfaces in the current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) geometry. These parameters are: 2AR(Al/Cu), twice the interface specific resistance, where A is the area through which the CPP current MK-0518 flows; and delta(Al/Cu), which gives the probability P of spin-flipping from P = 1 – exp(-delta). A technique involving simple multilayers, and sample temperature not exceeding room temperature, gives 2AR(Al/Cu) = 2.3 +/- 0.2 f Omega m(2). A technique involving exchange-biased spin-valves (EBSVs), where the sample is annealed briefly to 453 K, gives 2AR(Al/Cu) = 2.0 +/- 0.15 f Omega m(2). Averaging the two values, but increasing the uncertainty for reasons explained, gives the best estimate of 2AR(Al/Cu) = 2.15 +/- 0.4 f Omega m(2). This average is comparable to, but smaller than, the published value of 2AR(Al/Cu) = 3.6 +/- 1 f Omega m(2) derived from thermal conductance measurements, and larger than our calculated values for interface thicknesses up to 6 monolayers (ML). However, it is similar to our calculated values for an interface thickness of 8 ML.

Financial data for publicly traded firms was collected through th

Financial data for publicly traded firms was collected through the use of four databases specializing click here in firm financials. Patent searches were conducted using firm names in the US Patent and Trademark Office website search engine and the DNA Patent Database.

Results: A biotechnology subsector of genomics firms emerged in parallel to the publicly funded Human Genome Project. Trends among top firms show that hiring, capital improvement, and research

and development expenditures continued to grow after a 2000 to 2001 bubble. The majority of firms are small businesses with great diversity in type of research and development, products, and services provided. Over half the public firms holding patents have the majority of their intellectual property portfolio in DNA-based patents.

Conclusions: These data allow estimates of investment, research and development expenditures, and jobs that paralleled the rise of genomics as a sector within biotechnology between 1990 and 2004.”
“VAP-1 (vascular adhesion protein-1) possesses semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity. It has also been found that serum VAP-1 was elevated in acute and chronic hyperglycemia and in patients with diabetes as well as in chronic kidney disease. Renalase, with possible monoamine oxidase activity, which breaks down catecholamines such as SSAO, is

expressed in the endothelium as well as in the kidney. The aim of the study was to IPI-145 assess serum VAP-1 levels in peritoneally dialyzed (PD) patients and factors explaining its variability. This pilot study was performed on 25 peritoneally dialyzed patients, including 4 patients with type 2 diabetes. We found that the mean VAP-1 was significantly higher in chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients when compared to the control group (p<0.05). Dopamine was significantly lower in PD patients when compared to the healthy volunteers (p<0.05), whereas noradrenaline was significantly higher in PD patients relative to the healthy volunteers (p<0.01).

There was a significant difference in the VAP-1 concentration in the group with and without residual renal function (p<0.05) as well as between 10 patients with hyperglycemia when compared to patients with normoglycemia (p<0.05). There was no effect of gender ACY-738 on the serum VAP-1 levels. In PD patients VAP-1 correlated with systolic blood pressure (r=-0.4, p<005), residual renal function (r=-0.62, p<0.05), and glucose (=0.54, p<0.05).

We concluded that VAP-1, elevated in patients on PD, was predominantly dependent on residual kidney function and glucose level, factors both linked to endothelial damage and cardiovascular complications.”
“Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an X-linked disorder affects approximately 1 in 5000 males, is universally associated with heart disease.