This study was performed to determine if exposure to androgen pat

This study was performed to determine if exposure to androgen pathway manipulation (APM) is associated with greater survival in male patients diagnosed with lung cancer. Using a retrospective cohort design, all men diagnosed with lung cancer from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2010 were identified from the population-based Manitoba Cancer Registry and Manitoba Health Administrative Databases. Information from the Drug Program Information Network (DPIN)

was used to determine prescriptions filled for antiandrogens, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis with time-varying exposure variables was PU-H71 Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor used to compare survival. A total of 3018 men with lung cancer were identified between 2004 and 2010. Of these, 339 (11.5 %) were identified as having used a form of APM. The majority of patients received 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. Patients who received APM prior to the diagnosis of lung cancer had no significant difference in survival (HR 0.97, p=0.69) compared to those who did not. Patients exposed to APM after their diagnosis were found to have a significantly better survival (HR 0.36, p=0.0007), RSL3 purchase as were those exposed both before and after diagnosis (HR 0.53, p smaller than

0.0001). In male patients diagnosed with lung cancer, exposure to APM is associated with significantly better survival when compared with no exposure. The association is only seen when some or all of the exposure has occurred after the diagnosis of lung cancer.”
“MicroRNAs are a highly conserved class of small RNAs that function in a sequence-specific ABT737 manner to posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression. Tissue-specific miRNA expression studies have discovered numerous functions for miRNAs in various aspects of embryogenesis, but a role for miRNAs in gonadal development and sex differentiation has not yet been reported. Using the chicken embryo as a model, microarrays

were used to profile the expression of chicken miRNAs prior to, during, and after the time of gonadal sex differentiation (Embryonic Day 5.5 [E5.5], E6.5, and E9.5). Sexually dimorphic miRNAs were identified, and the expression patterns of several were subjected to further validation by in situ hybridization and Northern blot analysis. Expression of one chicken miRNA, MIR202*, was observed to be sexually dimorphic, with upregulation in the developing testis from the onset of sexual differentiation. Additional data from deep sequencing of male and female embryonic gonad RNA samples also indicated upregulation of MIR202* in male gonads. These findings provide the first evidence of sexually dimorphic miRNA expression during vertebrate gonadal sex differentiation and suggest that MIR202* may function in regulating testicular development.

13 (0 39) uL for pressures of 1 0, 0 9 and 0 8 atm, respectively

13 (0.39) uL for pressures of 1.0, 0.9 and 0.8 atm, respectively. These experimental results demonstrate the possibility of using the prototype pump as an implantable micro-volumetric infusion device. However, this prototype pump will have to undergo further design enhancement before being clinically feasible for such an

“Mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported in both familial and sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, effective therapy targeting this pathway Akt assay is currently inadequate. Recent studies suggest that manipulating the processes of mitochondrial fission and fusion has considerable potential for treating human diseases. To determine the therapeutic impact of targeting these pathways on PD, we used two complementary mouse models of mitochondrial PD0332991 in vivo impairments as seen in PD. We show here that blocking mitochondrial fission is neuroprotective in the PTEN-induced putative kinase-1 deletion (PINK1(-/-)) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse models. Specifically, we show that inhibition of the mitochondrial fission GTPase dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) using gene-based and small-molecule approaches attenuates neurotoxicity and restores pre-existing striatal dopamine release deficits in these animal models. These results suggest Drp1 inhibition as a potential treatment for PD.”
“Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation

between semiquantitative selleck compound and quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) parameters with delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cartilage

(dGEMRIC). Methods: Fifteen patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the ArthroMark cohort were investigated at a 3-T MRI scanner. The metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint of the index finger was examined with DCE-MRI and dGEMRIC. Semiquantitative and quantitative DCE perfusion parameters were calculated. The RA MRI score of the second MCP joint and the joint space width were measured. Results: Significant correlations were noted between both semiquantitative and quantitative DCE parameters and the RA MRI score of the second MCP joint. There was a significant negative correlation between DCE parameters and dGEMRIC. No association between joint space width and DCE parameters was observed. Conclusions: Semiquantitative and quantitative analyses of perfusion are applicable to show that cartilage damage correlates with the inflammation activity despite the absence of joint space narrowing.”
“This letter presents the stability analysis for two steepest descent algorithms with momentum for quadratic functions. The corresponding local optimal parameters in Torii and Hagan (2002) and Zhang (2013) are extended to the global optimal parameters, that is, both the optimal learning rates and the optimal momentum factors are obtained simultaneously which make for the fastest convergence.”
“The epidemiology of lung cancer differs between men and women.

Our framework highlights the key trade-offs between Medicare

Our framework highlights the key trade-offs between Medicare

spending and economic prosperity.”
“Biological and social evolutionary processes, along with social and cultural developments, have allowed humans to separate procreation from pleasurable/recreational sexual activity. As a class learning project, an alternative, hypothetical reproductive scenario is presented: “What if humans were biologically ready to conceive only during one period each year?” Discussion is followed by small-group or individual research on the possible effects of this scenario on human reproductive response and its further effects on human life, society, and civilization. An important purpose of the activity is to stimulate active learning through small-group interaction, communication, and research.”
“Objectives: Small FK228 mw bowel dysfunction in critically ill patients is frequent, underdiagnosed, and associated with poor prognosis. Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein is LDC000067 a marker of enterocyte damage, and plasma citrulline concentration is a marker of functional enterocyte mass. Primary objective was to identify factors associated with intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in critically ill patients. Secondary objectives were to study factors associated with plasma citrulline concentration

and its correlation with intestinal fatty acid-binding protein. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: ICU in a University Hospital Patients: Critically ill patients 18 years old or older with an expected length of ICU stay 48 hours or more, without pregnancy, chronic small bowel disease, or chronic renal failure. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein and citrulline concentrations, and variables relating to prognosis and treatment, were measured at admission to the ICU.

One selleck screening library hundred and three patients were included. Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein elevation at admission to the ICU was associated with catecholamine support, higher lactate concentration, higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, and higher international normalized ratio (all p smaller than = 0.001). Plasma citrulline concentration less than or equal to 10 mu mol/L at admission to the ICU was associated with higher intra-abdominal pressure, higher plasma C reactive protein concentration, and more frequent antibiotic use (all p smaller than = 0.005). There was no correlation between plasma levels of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein and citrulline. At ICU admission, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score bigger than = 12, plasma citrulline smaller than = 12.2 mu mol/L, and plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein concentration bigger than = 355 pg/mL were all independently associated with 28-day mortality (odds ratio, 4.39 [1.48-13.03]; odds ratio, 5.17 [1.59-16.86]; and odds ratio, 4.46 [1.35-14.74], respectively).

Polyphasic feedback can enable more accurate tuning of long defer

Polyphasic feedback can enable more accurate tuning of long deferral times. Together, these results suggest that Bacillus subtilis uses a pulsed positive feedback loop to implement a “timer” that operates over timescales much longer than a cell cycle.”
“The citrus (Citrus sinensis) cyclophilin GSI-IX in vitro CsCyp is a target of the Xanthomonas citri transcription activator-like effector PthA, required to elicit cankers

on citrus. CsCyp binds the citrus thioredoxin CsTdx and the carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II and is a divergent cyclophilin that carries the additional loop KSGKPLH, invariable cysteine (Cys) residues Cys-40 and Cys-168, and the conserved glutamate (Glu) Glu-83. Despite the suggested roles in ATP and metal binding, the functions of these unique structural elements remain unknown. Here, we show that the conserved Cys residues form a disulfide bond that inactivates the enzyme, whereas Glu-83, which belongs to the catalytic loop and is also critical for enzyme activity, is anchored

to the divergent loop to maintain the active site open. In addition, we demonstrate that Cys-40 and Cys-168 are required for the interaction with CsTdx and that CsCyp binds the citrus carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II YSPSAP repeat. Our data support a model where formation of the Cys-40-Cys-168 disulfide bond induces a conformational change that disrupts the interaction of the divergent selleck products and catalytic loops, via Glu-83, causing the active site to close. This suggests a new type of allosteric this website regulation in divergent cyclophilins, involving disulfide bond formation and a loop-displacement mechanism.”
“Myopia in school-aged children is a major public

health problem in Asians that has been extensively studied. Multifocal lenses (MLs) are advocated as a substitute for single vision lenses (SVLs) to slow myopia progression in children, but results vary greatly across studies. We systematically searched currently available randomized controlled trials that compared the effects of MLs and SVLs in children. A meta-analysis of nine of these trials showed that MLs with powers ranging from +1.50 to +2.00D were associated with a statistically significantly decrease in myopia progression in school-aged children compared with SVLs. The benefit was greater in children with a higher level of myopia at baseline and sustained for a minimum of 24 months. Asian children appeared to have greater benefit from intervention with MLs than white children. (Surv Ophthalmol 56:451-460, 2011. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.)”
“Mitochondrial oxidative damage is thought to play a key role in pancreatic beta-cell failure in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.

The correlation analysis revealed that the apolipoprotein (apo) A

The correlation analysis revealed that the apolipoprotein (apo) A-I levels were positively and significantly with all HDL subclasses contents; plasma total cholesterol

(TC) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were inversely associated with HDL2a, and HDL2b. Moreover, the FPG levels were positively related to HDL3c, HDL3b, and HDL3a in ACS patients. SHP099 in vitro Conclusion: The HDL subclass distribution profile remodeling was noted in the patients with ACS. Plasma lipoprotein and FPG levels, BP, and BMI play an important role in the HDL subclass metabolism disorder for patients with ACS. The HDL subclass distribution phenotype might be useful as a novel biomarker to assist in the risk stratification of patients with ACS.”
“Genomic information about Clostridium tetani, the causative agent of the tetanus disease, is scarce. The genome of strain E88, a strain used vaccine production, was sequenced about 10 years ago. One additional

genome (strain 12124569) has recently been released. Here we three new genomes of C. tetani and describe major differences among all five C. tetani genomes. They all harbor plasmids that contain highly conserved genes for TeNT (tetanus toxin), TetR (transcriptional regulator of TeNT) and ColT (collagenase), substantially INCB028050 concentration differ in other plasmid regions. The chromosomes share a large core genome that contains about 85% of all genes of a chromosome. The non-core chromosome comprises mainly prophage-like genomic regions and genes encoding

environmental interaction defense functions (e.g. surface proteins, restriction-modification systems, toxin-antitoxin systems, CRISPR/Cas systems) and other functions (e.g. transport systems, metabolic activities). This new genome information will help to assess the level of genome plasticity of species C. tetani and provide the basis for detailed comparative studies. (C) 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Secondary hemorrhage after thrombolysis in ischemic stroke is an important complication, which has been difficult to study in preclinical disease models. We have established and characterized a model of GSK1838705A in vitro thromboembolic middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Advantages of this model include a very low rate of spontaneous recanalization and good reperfusion after intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). In vivo T2* MR imaging and postmortem assays were used for quantification of secondary brain hemorrhage. In our protocol, 12 thrombin-induced autologous blood clots are injected into the internal carotid artery. No spontaneous reperfusion occurs in the first 24 h. However, injection of rt-PA 2 or 4 h thereafter leads to reperfusion of the MCA territory consistent infarcts, increased blood-brain barrier permeability, and secondary hemorrhage.


The ABT-263 prevalence and distribution of these fungi vary according to the patients

and certain environmental factors. Because the areas including the lids, external auditory canal, behind the ears, navel, inguinal region, and axillae, also called flexures, are underventilated and moist areas exposed to friction, they are especially sensitive to fungal infections. Fungi can both directly invade the skin, leading to infections, and indirectly stimulate immune mechanisms due to tissue interaction and their antigenic character and contribute to the development or exacerbation of secondary bacterial infections, seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. Superficial fungal infections can be classified and studied as dermatophyte infections, candidal infections, Malassezia infections, and other superficial infections independently from the involved skin fold areas. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The nitric acid oxidation of D-glucose was reinvestigated in an effort to better understand and improve the oxidation and subsequent work up steps. The oxidation was carried out using a computer controlled reactor employing a closed reaction flask under an atmosphere of oxygen which allowed

for a catalytic oxidation process with oxygen as the terminal oxidant. Removal of nitric acid from product included the use of both diffusion dialysis and nanofiltration methodologies. Luminespib purchase Product analysis protocols were developed using ion chromatography. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Lyme borreliosis (Lyme disease) is caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex, which are transmitted

by ticks. The most common clinical manifestation is erythema migrans, which eventually resolves, even without antibiotic treatment. However, the infecting pathogen can spread to other tissues and organs, causing more severe manifestations that can involve a patient’s skin, nervous system, joints, or heart. The incidence of this disease is increasing in many countries. Laboratory evidence of infection, mainly serology, is essential for diagnosis, except in the case SYN-117 in vivo of typical erythema migrans. Diagnosed cases are usually treated with antibiotics for 2-4 weeks and most patients make an uneventful recovery. No convincing evidence exists to support the use of antibiotics for longer than 4 weeks, or for the persistence of spirochaetes in adequately treated patients. Prevention is mainly accomplished by protecting against tick bites. There is no vaccine available for human beings.”
“Objective Drug-eluting stents (DESs) are commonly used in patients with unprotected left main (ULM) disease. Although multivessel disease and stenting are frequent in this population, pertinent details on short-term and long-term outcomes are lacking.

4 versus 2 2, p smaller than 003), numbness (5 3 versus 2 2, p

4 versus 2.2, p smaller than . 003), numbness (5.3 versus 2.2, p smaller than . 001), fatigue (5.1 versus 3.6, p smaller than . 03), changes in bowel patterns (3.8 versus 1.4, p smaller than . 003) and weakness (4.2 versus 2.1, p smaller than . 006). Brain patients compared with spine patients had increased lack of appetite (. 4 versus 2, p smaller than . 014). Patients with lower income ( smaller than =$ 59,999) had more problems concentrating (p smaller than . 024) and worse cognitive module

severity scores (p smaller than . 024). Estimated average monthly out-of-pocket spending was $168 for medical co-pays and $59 for prescription medication. Patients with ependymoma are highly affected by their symptoms. Spinal patients report higher severity of symptoms. Patients in the lower income group report significantly higher severity

of cognitive symptoms independent of disease site.”
“The Uyghur (UIG) population, settled in Xinjiang, find protocol China, is a population presenting a typical admixture of Eastern and Western anthropometric traits. We dissected its Prexasertib price genomic structure at population level, individual level, and chromosome level by using 20,177 SNPS spanning nearly the entire chromosome 21. Our results showed that UIG was formed by two-way admixture, with 60% European ancestry and 40% East Asian ancestry. Overall linkage disequilibrium (LD) in UIG was similar to that in its parental populations represented in East Asia and Europe with regard to common alleles, and UIG manifested elevation of LD only within 500 kb and at a level of 0.1 < r(2) < 0.8 when ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) were used. The size of chromosomal segments that were derived from East Asian and European ancestries averaged 2.4 cM and 4.1 cM, respectively. Both the magnitude of LD and fragmentary

ancestral chromosome segments indicated a long history of Uyghur. Under the assumption of a hybrid isolation (HI) model, we estimated that the admixture event of UIG occurred about 126 [107 similar to 146] generations ago, or 2520 [2140 similar to 2920] years ago assuming 20 years per generation. Ricolinostat in vivo In spite of the long history and short LD of Uyghur compared with recent admixture populations such as the African-American population, we suggest that mapping by admixture LD (MALD) is still applicable in the Uyghur population but similar to 10-fold AIMs are necessary for a whole-genome scan.”
“Great work has been done to reduce the batch production time of starch nanocrystals (SNCs) and improve their compatibilization with different matrices. However, only one study was reported on SNC production kinetics and none on size distributions and isolation techniques. This study was designed to assess if nonsolubilized particles in the hydrolyzed starch suspension reflect the actual amount of SNC. It was observed that SNCs are produced from a very early stage.

RESULTS: Maximum amplitude (MA) was lower compared to baselin

\n\nRESULTS: Maximum amplitude (MA) was lower compared to baseline values in both groups after 50% dilution with normal saline (P < .001) and remained lower than baseline despite reconstitution with 3:1:0

or 1:1:0 PRBC:FFP:PLT (P < .0001) or 3:1:1 PRBC:FFP:PLT (P < .01). MA approached baseline (P = not significant) in the samples with 1:1:1 PRBC:FFP:PLT.\n\nCONCLUSION: The addition of PLT to 1:1 PRBC:FFP optimized MA in this in vitro hemodilutional model of postpartum hemorrhage.”
“It remains unclear whether brain structural abnormalities observed before the onset of psychosis are specific to schizophrenia or are common to all psychotic disorders. This study aimed to measure regional gray matter volume prior to the onset of schizophreniform and of affective psychoses. We investigated 102 subjects at ultrahigh risk (UHR) of developing psychosis recruited from the Personal Assessment and Crisis Evaluation Clinic in Melbourne, Australia. BTK signaling inhibitor Twenty-eight of these subjects developed psychosis subsequent to scanning: 19 schizophrenia, 7 affective psychoses, and 2 other psychoses. We examined regional gray matter volume using 1.5 mm thick, coronal, 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry methods of image analysis. Subjects were scanned at presentation and were followed up clinically for a minimum of 12 buy LY3023414 months, to detect later

transition to psychosis. We found that both groups of subjects who subsequently developed psychosis (schizophrenia and affective psychosis) showed reductions in the frontal cortex relative to UHR subjects who did not develop psychosis. The subgroup that subsequently developed schizophrenia also showed smaller volumes in the parietal cortex and, at trend level, in the temporal cortex, whereas those who developed an affective psychosis had significantly smaller subgenual cingulate volumes. These preliminary findings suggest that volumetric abnormalities in UHR individuals developing schizophrenia

vs affective psychoses comprise a combination of features that predate both disorders and 17-AAG inhibitor others that may be specific to the nature of the subsequent disorder.”
“Objective: To determine whether arterial elasticity differs between obese adolescents with clinical insulin resistance (IR), type 1 diabetes (T1D) and healthy non-obese controls. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated 69 adolescents with clinical IR, 91 with T1D and 63 age-matched (10- to 18-year-old) controls. Arterial elasticity was measured using radial tonometry pulse-wave analysis. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to assess the determinants of the small and large arterial elasticity indices (SAEI and LAEI). Results: SAEI and LAEI raw values were higher in the IR group than the controls, and these did not differ between the T1D and control groups. Weight and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were significant predictors of SAEI.

It has been seen that increasing value from by-products of oil pr

It has been seen that increasing value from by-products of oil production is important for the viability of the crop for the farmers. The seed kernel meal left after oil extraction is CAL-101 mouse potentially of high market value as an animal feed ingredient. Every kilogram of oil produced from jatropha seeds generates about 0.75 kg of high quality seed kernel meal. It has a high protein content (65% on a dry matter basis) with a favourable amino acid composition, but is toxic because of the presence of compounds called phorbol esters. We introduce a non-toxic jatropha variety where phorbol esters are absent in the seeds and hence, the kernel meal can be included in animal feeds after conventional heat treatment

similar to that done for soybean meal. Preliminary observations in a field trial indicates that there are non-toxic jatropha provenances that are similar to or better than the conventional toxic jatropha varieties in seed yield

per plant and seed oil content. Non-toxic jatropha Selleck GSK2126458 has potential as a viable bio-oil crop if high quality seeds are used for developing the plantation. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are ubiquitous small heat-stable disulfide oxidoreductases that play a crucial role in plant development and response to oxidative stress. Here, a novel cDNA fragment (SlGRX1) from tomato encoding a protein containing the consensus Grx family domain with a CGFS active site was isolated and characterized. Southern blot analysis indicated that SlGRX1 gene had a single copy in tomato genome. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed

that SlGRX1 was expressed Androgen Receptor Antagonist ubiquitously in tomato including leaf, root, stem and flower, and its expression could be induced by oxidative, drought, and salt stresses. Virus-induced gene silencing mediated silencing of SlGRX1 in tomato led to increased sensitivity to oxidative and salt stresses with decreased relative chlorophyll content, and reduced tolerance to drought stress with decreased relative water content. In contrast, over-expression of SlGRX1 in Arabidopsis plants significantly increased resistance of plants to oxidative, drought, and salt stresses. Furthermore, expression levels of oxidative, drought and salt stress related genes Apx2, Apx6, and RD22 were up-regulated in SlGRX1-overexpressed Arabidopsis plants when analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Our results suggest that the Grx gene SlGRX1 plays an important role in regulating abiotic tolerance against oxidative, drought, and salt stresses.”
“Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder caused by an unstable expansion of CAG repeats ( bigger than 35 repeats) within exon 1 of the interesting transcript 15 (IT15) gene. This gene encodes a protein called Huntingtin (Htt), and mutation of the gene results in a polyglutamine (polyQ) near the N-terminus of Htt.

Above pH 8, the acid-alkaline transition due to the deprotonation

Above pH 8, the acid-alkaline transition due to the deprotonation of the water ligand was observed. The produced thiolate/OH -coordinated ferric-P450st was stable at room temperature. The pK(a) value of 8.7 for the transition reflects the protonation properties of the distal side of the heme. (C) 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.”
“A critical stage in malaria transmission occurs in the Anopheles mosquito

midgut, when the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, ingested with blood, first makes contact with the gut epithelial surface. To understand the response mechanisms within the midgut environment, including those influenced by resident microbiota against Plasmodium, we focus on a midgut bacteria species’ intra-specific variation that confers diversity to the mosquito’s competency for malaria transmission. Serratia marcescens isolated

from either laboratory-reared mosquitoes or wild populations in Burkina Faso shows great phenotypic variation in its cellular and structural features. Importantly, this variation is directly correlated with its ability to inhibit Plasmodium development within the mosquito midgut. Furthermore, this anti-Plasmodium function conferred by Serratia marcescens requires increased expression of the flagellum selleck screening library biosynthetic pathway that is modulated by the motility master regulatory operon, flhDC. These findings point to new strategies for controlling malaria through genetic manipulation of midgut bacteria within the mosquito.”
“The Brugada syndrome is a well-known genetic disease comprising a distinct electrocardiographic pattern with a high risk for cardiac arrest. The Brugada electrocardiographic pattern has, however, been observed in other clinical conditions. We describe a case of hyperkalemia

presenting a Brugada type I pattern in the absence of typical electrocardiographic manifestations seen in hyperkalemia. J Cardiovasc Med 11:285-287 (C) 2010 Italian Federation of Cardiology.”
“Introduction: Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a foodborne illness that affects mainly pregnant women, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. The primary treatment is a combination of ampicillin with an aminoglycoside, in addition to a second-choice drug represented by chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline and rifampicin. The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of strains isolated from human sources in the last four decades. Methods: Sixty-eight strains were selected from the culture collection of the Laboratory of Bacterial Zoonoses/LABZOO/FIOCRUZ isolated in different regions of Brazil from 1970 to 2008 and primarily isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture. Susceptibility tests to antimicrobials drugs were evaluated using the criteria established by Soussy using the Kirby-Bauer method and E-Test strips were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).