Since leukocyte adhesion causes cytokine release, we found expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-7 (MCP-1) was higher in the NTS of SHR while inter-leukin-6 (IL-6) was lower compared to the WKY rat. Inflammation of the brainstem microvasculature may increase vascular resistance within the brainstem. High brainstem vascular resistance and its inflammation may release pathological paracrine signaling molecules affecting central neural cardiovascular activity conducive to neurogenic hypertension. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: This 2-arm phase II multicenter trial was designed to assess check details the efficacy and
toxicity of neoadjuvant paclitaxel, gemcitabine and carboplatin in patients with invasive bladder cancer.
Materials and Methods: Patients in arm I had clinical stage T2 with hydronephrosis or T3 bladder cancer. They received 3 cycles of chemotherapy (200 mg/m(2) paclitaxel on day 1, AUC 5 carboplatin on day 1, and 800 mg/m(2) gemcitabine on days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle). Response was defined as
achievement of a pathological complete response (pT0). Patients in arm II with T4 or lymph node positive disease received selleck screening library up to 6 cycles of paclitaxel, carboplatin and gemcitabine. Response was defined as conversion to surgical resectability.
Results: In arm I, 31 patients were enrolled and 22 were evaluable for response. Seven patients had pT0 disease (32% of evaluable patients, 22% by intent to treat). In arm II, 37 patients were enrolled and 29 were evaluable for response with 24 suitable for surgical resection (83% of evaluable and
65% by intent to treat). The most common toxicity was neutropenia with 39 events in arm I and 68 in arm II. There were 7 deaths on study (5 during chemotherapy and 2 after cystectomy).
Conclusions: Neoadjuvant paclitaxel, carboplatin and gemcitabine resulted in a significant number of responses in both arms but greater than anticipated toxicity. The pT0 rate was modest and overall efficacy was difficult to assess due to the toxicity. More studies of novel agents and combinations of are needed to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of neoadjuvant therapy for bladder cancer.”
“Our aim is to consolidate recent data on relationship between central serotonergic neurotransmission and stress-elicited cardiovascular changes. Activation of central of 5-HT1A receptors attenuates tachycardic and pressor changes elicited by a wide range of stressors (airjet, restraint, open field, fear conditioning, social defeat), supporting the previous view of these receptors as “”sympathoinhibitory”". Their likely location is the medullary raphe. It is still unknown whether 5-TH1A receptors are sympathoinhibitory in physiological condition, as 5-HT1A antagonists do not affect basal or stress-altered cardiovascular parameters.