Ex vivo angiogenesis, which we induced by VEGF-A, basic fibroblas

Ex vivo angiogenesis, which we induced by VEGF-A, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), was also enhanced in the aortas of Sprouty4 KO mice. We demonstrated that Sprouty4 suppresses Ras-independent VEGF-A and S1P signaling, while

it does not affect Ras-dependent VEGF-C signaling. These data indicate that Sprouty4 selectively suppresses Ras-independent angiogenic factor signals and is an important negative regulator of pathophysiological angiogenesis. (Cancer Sci 2009; 100: 1648-1654).”
“Objectives. Relative to typical age-related cognitive decrements, the terms “terminal decline” and “terminal drop” refer to the phenomenon of increased cognitive decline in proximity to death. Given that these terms are not necessarily synonymous, we examined NOV120101 find more the important theoretical distinction between the two alternative trajectories or shapes of changes they imply.\n\nMethods. We used 12-year (5-wave) data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study to directly test whether pre-death cognitive decrements follow a terminal decline (generally gradual) or a terminal drop (more abrupt) shape. Pre-death trajectories of cognitive decline for n = 265 decedents (M(age) = 72.67 years, SD = 6.44) were examined separately for 5 key cognitive constructs (verbal speed, working memory, episodic memory, semantic memory, and crystallized ability).\n\nResults. Several classes of linear mixed models evaluated whether

cognitive decline increased per additional year closer to death. Findings indicated Selleck A-1210477 that the shape of

pre-death cognitive change was predominantly characterized by decline that is steeper as compared with typical aging-related change, but still best described as slow and steady decline, especially as compared with precipitous drop.\n\nDiscussion. The present findings suggest that terminal decline and terminal drop trajectories may not be mutually exclusive but could rather reflect distinct developmental trajectories within the same individual.”
“Objective. Mutational activation of PIK3CA is associated with poor prognosis in patients with solid tumors, and may predict favorable response to PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors. However, PIK3CA mutational status has not previously been evaluated in patients with cervical carcinoma treated with radical chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the frequency of PIK3CA mutations in patients with cervical cancer treated with radical CRT and (2) to examine the effect of tumor PIK3CA mutational status in pre-treatment biopsies on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS).\n\nMethods. Patients with cervical cancer, treated at a single institution with radical CRT, from 1999 to 2008, were eligible for this retrospective study. Pre-treatment tumor biopsies (n = 157) were retrieved. Genomic DNA was extracted from tumor blocks, and exons 9 and 20 of the PIK3CA gene were sequenced for mutations.\n\nResults.

1D and 3D heterogeneous

virtual tissues are constructed,

1D and 3D heterogeneous

virtual tissues are constructed, with detailed tissue architecture (anisotropy and orthotropy, due to fibre orientation and sheet structure) of the left ventricular wall wedge extracted from a diffusion tensor imaging data set. The models are used to study the effects of tissue heterogeneity and class III drugs on transmural propagation see more and tissue vulnerability to re-entry.\n\nWe have determined relationships between the transmural dispersion of action potential duration (APD) and the vulnerable window in the 1D virtual ventricular wall, and demonstrated how changes in the transmural heterogeneity, and hence tissue vulnerability, can lead to generation β-Nicotinamide in vivo of re-entry in the 3D ventricular wedge. Two class III drugs with opposite qualitative effects on transmural APD heterogeneity are considered: d-sotalol that increases transmural APD dispersion, and amiodarone that decreases it. Simulations with the 1D virtual ventricular wall show that under d-sotalol conditions the vulnerable window is substantially wider compared to amiodarone

conditions, primarily in the epicardial region where unidirectional conduction block persists until the adjacent M cells are fully repolarised.\n\nFurther simulations with the 3D ventricular wedge have shown that ectopic stimulation of the epicardial region results in generation of sustained re-entry under d-sotalol conditions, but Nutlin-3a nmr not under amiodarone conditions or in control. Again, APD increase in M cells was

identified as the major contributor to tissue vulnerability-re-en try was initiated primarily due to ectopic excitation propagating around the unidirectional conduction block in the M cell region. This suggests an electrophysiological mechanism for the anti- and proarrhythmic effects of the class III drugs: the relative safety of amiodarone in comparison to d-sotalol can be explained by relatively low transmural APD dispersion, and hence, a narrow vulnerable window and low probability of re-entry in the tissue. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The nonstructural protein NS5A has emerged as a new drug target in antiviral therapies for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection. NS5A is critically involved in viral RNA replication that takes place at newly formed membranes within the endoplasmic reticulum (membranous web) and assists viral assembly in the close vicinity of lipid droplets (LDs). To identify host proteins that interact with NS5A, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen with the N-terminus of NS5A (amino acids 1-31), a well-studied alpha-helical domain important for the membrane tethering of NS5A. Our studies identified the LD-associated host protein, Tail-Interacting Protein 47 (TIP47) as a novel NS5A interaction partner.

The proposed technique is validated by using

returns from

The proposed technique is validated by using

returns from a helicopter observed experimentally with a pulse-Doppler radar. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Rivas-Estilla AM, Bryan-Marrugo OL, Trujillo-Murillo K, Perez-Ibave D, Charles-Nino C, Pedroza-Roldan C, Rios-Ibarra C, Ramirez-Valles E, Ortiz-Lopez R, Islas-Carbajal MC, Nieto N, Rincon-Sanchez AR. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) induction is implicated in the antioxidative and antiviral activity of acetylsalicylic acid in HCV-expressing cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 302: G1264-G1273, 2012. First published March 22, 2012; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00237.2011.-We evaluated the participation of oxidative stress in the negative regulation of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA induced by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). We used the HCV subgenomic replicon cell system that stably expresses HCV-nonstructural LY294002 proteins (Huh7 HCV replicon cells) and the parental cell line. Cells were exposed to 4 mM ASA at different times (12-72 h),

and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) was used as an antioxidant control. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, oxidized protein levels, cytosolic superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were measured to evaluate oxidative stress. In addition, viral RNA and prostaglandin (PGE(2)) levels were determined. We observed that ASA treatment decreased ROS production and oxidized protein levels in a time-dependent selleck chemicals llc fashion in both parental and HCV replicon cells with a greater extent in the latter. Similar results were found with PDTC exposure. Average GPx activity was decreased, whereas a striking increase was observed in average cytosolic Alvespimycin SOD activity at 48 and 72 h in both cells exposed to ASA, compared with untreated cells. HCV replicon cells showed higher levels of Cu/Zn-SOD expression (mRNA

and protein) with ASA treatment (48 and 72 h), whereas NS5A protein levels showed decreased expression. In addition, we found that inhibition of SOD1 expression reversed the effect of ASA. Interestingly, PDTC downregulated HCV-RNA expression (55%) and PGE(2) (60%) levels, imitating ASA exposure. These results suggest that ASA treatment could reduce cellular oxidative stress markers and modify Cu/ZnSOD expression, a phenomenon that may contribute to the mechanisms involved in HCV downregulation.”
“A reduced clearance of some drugs in renal failure is a problem, particularly with drugs that are excreted by the kidney substantially unmetabolised and also have significant toxicity and a low therapeutic ratio. The problem is compounded by the significant inaccuracy of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The aim was to develop general recommendations to reduce the risk of drug toxicity in renal failure, with particular reference to enoxaparin.

Resection (with or without

Resection (with or without NSC23766 manufacturer embolization) for lower staged or localized arteriovenous malformation offers the best chance for long-term control. (Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 125: 1185, 2010.)”
“Parallel separations using CE on a multilane microchip with multiplexed LIF detection is demonstrated. The detection system was developed to simultaneously record data on all channels using an expanded laser beam for excitation, a camera lens to capture emission, and a CCD camera for detection. The detection system enables monitoring of each channel continuously and distinguishing individual

lanes without significant crosstalk between adjacent lanes. Multiple analytes can be determined in parallel lanes within a single microchip in a single run, leading to increased sample throughput. The pK(a) determination of small molecule analytes is demonstrated with the multilane microchip.”
“Solitary necrotic nodule of the liver (SNNL) is rare. Generally thought to be nonmalignant, it is often mistaken for malignancy based on imaging findings alone. We present a case of a hepatitis B carrier who was found to have a new sonographically detected hepatic lesion. The lesion www.selleckchem.com/products/AZD8931.html was further evaluated with CT and MRI, and as appearances were suggestive of a hypovascular hepatoma, the lesion was surgically resected. This case is unique in that while it demonstrates several characteristic features

of SNNL, several other imaging and histological features have not been previously described.”
“A 22.4-ha impoundment experienced an outbreak of Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) virus (LMBV) disease in the summer of 2006. All dead or daring largemouth bass observed throughout the entire event were recorded

and removed. In this study, we estimated mortality and examined size distribution, condition, and biomass following the outbreak. Boat-mounted electrofishing was used to collect largemouth bass for a mark-recapture population estimate and other population metrics. Fish samples were examined for evidence of LMBV, other infectious diseases, and physical abnormalities. Cell cultures inoculated with samples from moribund selleck inhibitor fish developed cytopathic effects typical of LMBV, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed the presence of LMBV. The total number (N +/- 95% confidence interval) of stock-size largemouth bass remaining was estimated to be 2,301 +/- 528 fish (1.03 bass/ha). The total observed mortality, including dead and dying individuals, during the LMBV outbreak was 176 largemouth bass (7% of the initial population). The total biomass remaining was estimated at 1,592 kg of stock-size bass and a relative biomass of 71.5 kg of stock-size largemouth bass per hectare. Largemouth bass size structure was dominated I)v quality and preferred (300-510 mm) size classes, with very few memorable-size or larger (> 510 mm) fish, and the relative weight of largemouth bass was unusually variable.

To this end, we developed a treatment in which we combined the ef

To this end, we developed a treatment in which we combined the effects of nitric oxide (NO) with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory activity by using HCT1026, a NO-donating derivative of flurbiprofen that has a safe profile and additional immunomodulatory Flavopiridol inhibitor properties. Young and aged mice fed with control or HCT1026 (30mg kg(-1) day(-1)) diet were exposed to a single systemic injection of a subtoxic dose (0.2mg kg(-1))

of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), one of the most extensively used glial activators. HCT1026 efficiently reversed the age-dependent increase of microglial activation in response to LPS to levels measured in younger mice. In aged mice, LPS induced a progressive loss of DAergic neurons with no recovery for their entire life span, whereas younger mice or aged mice fed with HCT1026 were resistant to systemic LPS-induced DAergic neurodegeneration, underscoring glia as a key pharmacological

target for DAergic neuroprotection.”
“Background: AZD1208 supplier Several etiologic factors have been listed for pathologic migration of periodontally involved teeth based mainly on clinical observations with scarce scientific evidence. Present study was carried out to find out relationship of clinical attachment loss and gingival inflammation with pathologic tooth migration.\n\nMaterials and Methods: A total of 37 patients having 50 pairs of migrated and non-migrated contralateral teeth were taken into consideration.\n\nResults: Mean total attachment loss per tooth in migrated and non migrated tooth is 13.32 +/- 0.74 S. E. and 8.34 +/- 0.58 S. E., respectively (P < 0.001), which reveals a positive correlation.

There seems to be an association between frequency of migration and severity of attachment loss since highest percentage of migrations were seen in maximum total attachment loss group. Relationship could not be established between severity of attachment loss and severity of migration for which more data may be required. Also, it was seen that gingival index was significantly higher in migrated group.\n\nConclusion: Findings suggest that there exists GSK2126458 order a direct relationship between pathologic migration and clinical attachment loss as well as gingival inflammation.\n\nClinical relevance: Results emphasize the importance of early treatment of periodontitis to curb inflammation, which seems to be more important since it is completely reversible, and attachment loss also in order to prevent unaesthetic complications. Moreover bleeding along with recent change in position of teeth should be considered as important sign of active, moderate to severe periodontal disease by general dentists and hygienists so that they can refer for specialist consultation.”
“Extralobar pulmonary sequestrations (ELS) are most commonly found within the left thoracic cavity.

In vehicle-treated ArKO mice, hepatic transcript expression of fa

In vehicle-treated ArKO mice, hepatic transcript expression of fatty acid synthase (Fasn) and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (key enzymes in de novo FA synthesis) were significantly elevated compared with vehicle-treated WT, but only Fasn this website expression was lowered to WT level after ER alpha agonist treatment. There were no significant changes in the transcript levels of carnitine palmitoyl

transferase 1 (required for transfer of FA residues into the mitochondria for beta-oxidation) and sterol regulatory element-binding factor 1c (the upstream regulator of de novo FA synthesis). We also confirmed by RT-PCR that only ER alpha is expressed in the mouse liver. There were no changes in hepatic androgen receptor transcript level across all treatment groups. Our data suggest that estrogens act via ER alpha to regulate TG homeostasis in the ArKO liver. Since the liver, adipose tissue and arcuate nucleus express mainly ER alpha, estrogens could regulate hepatic functions via peripheral and central pathways. Journal of Endocrinology (2011) 210, 323-334″
“Aims: Typically, only a proportion of the patients suffering from common diseases respond to frequently prescribed drugs. Since the presence of drug nonresponders in pharmacogenetic studies can adversely affect statistical

power we propose a method to restrict genetic tests to drug responders only. In ERK inhibitor this paper, we estimate drug nonresponse in a clinical trial for the asthma drug montelukast as either the result of an inactive genetic variant or the presence of subgroups of patients not responding to the drug. selleck chemicals Materials & methods: We propose finite mixture models where unobserved (latent) categorical variables represent either a drug responder or nonresponder class. Analytical results show this method can substantially improve power by testing for genetic variants only in the drug-responder class. We also demonstrate how, if appropriate, placebo data can be used to further increase power to detect genetic effects. Results: It was estimated that only 25-30% of the subjects responded to the drug

montelukast. Genetic-association tests confined to the responder group resulted in a substantial increase in explained genetic variance, between 10.3 and 13.2%, for four markers in the arachidonate 5-lipoxigenase (ALOX5) and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CYSLTR1) genes. Conclusion: The presence of subgroups of patients that do not respond to the drug was an important reason for nonresponse. Additional analyses using finite mixture models in pharmacogenetic studies may provide insight into drug nonresponse and a better discrimination between true and false discoveries.”
“Meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC) occurs in the germ cells of translocation carriers and may cause meiotic arrest and infertility. We hypothesized that if bypassing meiotic checkpoints MSUC may cause epigenetic defects in sperm.

05) 2 I-to current densities were decreased from epicardial to

05). 2. I-to current densities were decreased from epicardial to endocardial ventricular myocytes, which were 59.50 +/- 15.99 pA/pF, 29.15 +/- 5.53 pA/pF, and 12.29 +/- 3.62 pA/pF, respectively at + 70 mV test potential (P < 0.05). 3. APDs were gradually prolonged with the increase of DHA concentrations from 1 mu mol/L to 100 mu mol/L, however, APDs changes were not significant as DHA concentrations

were in the range of 0 mu mol/L to 1 see more mu mol/L. 4. I-to currents were gradually reduced with the increase of DHA concentrations from 1 mu mol/L to 100 mu mol/L, and its half-inhibited concentration was 5.3 mu mol/L. The results showed that there were regional differences in the distribution of action potentials and I-to in rat epicardial, mid-cardial and endocardial ventricular myocytes. APDs were prolonged and I-to current densities were gradually reduced with the increase of DHA concentrations.\n\nConclusion: The anti-arrhythmia mechanisms of DHA are complex, however, the effects of DHA on action potentials and I-to may be one of the important causes.”
“The swelling properties of polyampholytic hydrogels with different charge stoichiometric ratio were characterized by continuous monitoring changes in optical length of 60 sized hydrogels with 2 nm resolution using an interferometric readout check details platform. The hydrogels were synthesized by copolymerizing acrylamide, crosslinker Bis and

charged monomers. Anionic-cationic polyampholyte gels consisted of different molar ratio between anionic monomer 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPSA) and cationic monomer (3-acrylamidopropyl) trimethylammonium Mdm2 inhibitor chloride (APTAC). The polyzwitterionic hydrogels consisted of zwitterionic monomer [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide (SBA) with a certain molar of AMPSA or APTAC in addition to the AAM. The

observed swelling properties versus the ionic strength in the aqueous immersion solution revealed apparent anti-electrolyte signatures for both types of polyampholytic hydrogels. The swelling kinetics was not affected by charge imbalance within the polyampholyte or polyzwitterionic hydrogels. Polyampholyte hydrogels with balanced charge ratio slightly shrinked and then swelled with the increase of ionic strength, which is at variance with the anionic AMPSA offset hydrogels displaying shrinking in low ionic strength and relatively small swelling at high ionic strength. The swelling properties of imbalanced polyampholyte hydrogels were not equal to simply linear overlap of those of polyampholyte hydrogels with balanced charges, and corresponding polyelectrolyte hydrogels. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In this work, Li-modified KNN ceramic compositions ((K0.5Na0.5)(1-x)Li-x)NbO3 with x = 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.06, 0.65 and 0.07 were prepared by a conventional solid-state mixed-oxide method.

The subjective image quality of the hepatic veins was evaluated u

The subjective image quality of the hepatic veins was evaluated using a fourpoint scale. The image quality of the hepatic veins was analysed using signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and CNR values. Results: The optimal CNR between hepatic veins and the liver was obtained with the non-linear-blending images. Compared with the other three groups, there were significant differences in the www.selleckchem.com/products/qnz-evp4593.html maximum CNR, the SNR, the subjective ratings and the minimum

background noise (p smaller than 0.001). A comparison of the monochromatic and 80-kVp images revealed that the CNR and subjective ratings were both improved (p smaller than 0.001). There was no significant difference in the CNR or subjective ratings between the simulated 120-kVp group and the control group (p = 0.090 and 0.053, respectively). Conclusion: The non-linear-blending technique for acquiring DECT provided the best image quality for hepatic venography. Advances in knowledge: DECT can enhance the contrast of hepatic veins and the liver, potentially allowing the wider use of low-dose contrast agents for CT examination of the liver.”
“The neuronal mechanisms underlying perceptual grouping of discrete, similarly oriented elements are not well understood. To investigate this, we measured neural population PR171 responses using voltage-sensitive dye imaging in V1 of monkeys trained on a contour-detection task. By mapping the

contour and background elements onto V1, we could study their neural processing. Population response early in time showed activation patches corresponding to the contour/background individual elements. However, late increased activity in GDC 941 the contour elements, along with suppressed activity in the background elements, enabled

us to visualize in single trials a salient continuous contour “popping out” from a suppressed background. This modulated activity in the contour and in background extended beyond the cortical representation of individual contour or background elements. Finally, the late modulation was correlated with behavioral performance of contour saliency and the monkeys’ perceptual report. Thus, opposing responses in the contour and background may underlie perceptual grouping in V1.”
“Background: Interrelationships among the ACE deletion/ insertion (D/I) polymorphism (rs1799752), migraine, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are biologically plausible but remain controversial.\n\nMethods: Association study among 25,000 white US women, participating in the Women’s Health Study, with information on the ACE D/I polymorphism. Migraine and migraine aura status were self-reported. Incident CVD events were confirmed after medical record review. We used logistic regression to investigate the genotype-migraine association and proportional hazards models to evaluate the interrelationship among genotype, migraine, and incident CVD.

[Woodhead, J L, Zhao, F -Q , Craig, R , Egelman, E H , Alamo, L,

[Woodhead, J.L, Zhao, F.-Q., Craig, R., Egelman, E.H., Alamo, L, Padron, R.. 2005. Atomic model of a myosin filament in the relaxed state. Nature 436, 1195-1199]. However, the orientation of the Wendt structure is different from that found by Woodhead in that the outer head projects outwards and www.selleckchem.com/products/nu7441.html the inner head lies closer to the filament backbone, as in earlier work done on the insect flight muscle myosin filaments [AL-Khayat, H.A., Hudson, L, Reedy, M.K., Irving, T.C., Squire, J.M., 2003. Myosin head configuration

in relaxed insect flight muscle: X-ray modelled resting crossbridges in a pre-power-stroke state are poised for actin binding. Biophys. J. 85, 1063-1079]. Possible species specific details that may differ between the scallop and the tarantula myosin filaments are also discussed. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Various LDK378 price genetic or toxin-induced

mouse models are frequently used for investigation of early PD pathology. Although olfactory impairment is known to precede motor symptoms by years, it is not known whether it is caused by impairments in the brain, the olfactory epithelium, or both. In this study, we investigated the olfactory function in three genetic Parkinson’s disease (PD) mouse models and mice treated with MPTP intraperitoneally and intranasally. To investigate olfactory function, we performed electro-olfactogram recordings (EOGs) and an olfactory behavior test (cookie-finding test). We show that neither a parkin knockout mouse strain, nor intraperitoneal MPTP treated animals display any olfactory impairment in EOG recordings and the applied behavior test. We also found no difference in the responses of the olfactory epithelium to odorants in a mouse strain over-expressing doubly mutated alpha-synuclein, while this mouse strain was not suitable to test olfaction in a cookie-finding test as it displays a mobility impairment.

A transgenic mouse expressing mutated alpha-synuclein in dopaminergic neurons performed equal to control animals in the cookie-finding AC220 mouse test. Further we show that intranasal MPTP application can cause functional damage of the olfactory epithelium.”
“To study the therapeutic effects of probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and identify subgroups benefiting most.\n\nSome trials investigating therapeutic effects in irritable bowel syndrome have shown benefits in IBS subgroups only. Probiotic treatment seems to be promising.\n\nPatients with irritable bowel syndrome (120; Rome II) were recruited to a prospective double-blind study and randomized to either EcN (n = 60) or placebo (n = 60) given for 12 weeks. Objectives were to describe efficacy and safety of EcN in different groups of irritable bowel syndrome. Outcome was assessed by ‘Integrative Medicine Patient Satisfaction Scale’.

andersoni increased with the pesticide load of the orchards where

andersoni increased with the pesticide load of the orchards whereas the relative abundance of E. finlandicus decreased. The abundance of T. pyri did not change in the apple orchards under different pest management strategies; regardless of the type of applied treatment, they only displayed greater abundance in five of the orchards. The remaining 15 phytoseiid species only occurred in small numbers, mostly from the abandoned and organic orchards. We identified a negative correlation between the abundance of T. pyri and the other phytoseiids in the abandoned and organic orchards. However, we did not find any similar link between the abundance of A. andersoni and E. finlandicus.”
“In an inexorably urbanizing

world, green roofs could be an interesting tool to conciliate the greening of cities with ecological services. Studies on a large number of sites are necessary to understand the importance of environmental variables, especially how the type of vegetation AS1842856 clinical trial affects the green learn more roof biodiversity.\n\nWe sampled several arthropods (spiders, true bugs, beetles and hymenopterans) from buildings covered

by green roofs in 115 sites across northern France. We considered 3 types of green roofs with diverse vegetal structures: muscinal (moss/sedum – M) roofs, herbaceous (moss/sedum and meadow – H) roofs and arbustive (moss/sedum, meadow and shrub – A) roofs.\n\nThe species richness and the abundance of most of the taxa were significantly higher on A roofs, which displayed more complex vegetation. Predominantly common species comprised the arthropod communities. However, xero-thermophilic species and species from sandy and rocky habitats were also present because green roofs could serve as habitat analogs

of those dry natural habitats. Except for hymenopterans, we did not observe a difference in the functional composition of communities; however, the taxonomic composition of spider communities was significantly affected by the green roof type. The surrounding environment and other local variables exhibited a minor influence on the composition, abundance and richness of the arthropods. We revealed a major role for the vegetal structures in arthropod communities and the ability of green roofs to enhance urban selleck inhibitor biodiversity. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“An exact analytical solution is obtained for convective heat transfer in straight ducts with rectangular cross-sections for the first time. This solution is valid for both H1 and H2 boundary conditions, which are related to fully developed convective heat transfer under constant heat flux at the duct walls. The separation of variables method and various other mathematical techniques are used to find the closed form of the temperature distribution. The local and mean Nusselt numbers are also obtained as functions of the aspect ratio. A new physical constraint is presented to solve the Neumann problem in non-dimensional analysis for the H2 boundary conditions.