Ex vivo angiogenesis, which we induced by VEGF-A, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), was also enhanced in the aortas of Sprouty4 KO mice. We demonstrated that Sprouty4 suppresses Ras-independent VEGF-A and S1P signaling, while
it does not affect Ras-dependent VEGF-C signaling. These data indicate that Sprouty4 selectively suppresses Ras-independent angiogenic factor signals and is an important negative regulator of pathophysiological angiogenesis. (Cancer Sci 2009; 100: 1648-1654).”
“Objectives. Relative to typical age-related cognitive decrements, the terms “terminal decline” and “terminal drop” refer to the phenomenon of increased cognitive decline in proximity to death. Given that these terms are not necessarily synonymous, we examined NOV120101 find more the important theoretical distinction between the two alternative trajectories or shapes of changes they imply.\n\nMethods. We used 12-year (5-wave) data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study to directly test whether pre-death cognitive decrements follow a terminal decline (generally gradual) or a terminal drop (more abrupt) shape. Pre-death trajectories of cognitive decline for n = 265 decedents (M(age) = 72.67 years, SD = 6.44) were examined separately for 5 key cognitive constructs (verbal speed, working memory, episodic memory, semantic memory, and crystallized ability).\n\nResults. Several classes of linear mixed models evaluated whether
cognitive decline increased per additional year closer to death. Findings indicated Selleck A-1210477 that the shape of
pre-death cognitive change was predominantly characterized by decline that is steeper as compared with typical aging-related change, but still best described as slow and steady decline, especially as compared with precipitous drop.\n\nDiscussion. The present findings suggest that terminal decline and terminal drop trajectories may not be mutually exclusive but could rather reflect distinct developmental trajectories within the same individual.”
“Objective. Mutational activation of PIK3CA is associated with poor prognosis in patients with solid tumors, and may predict favorable response to PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors. However, PIK3CA mutational status has not previously been evaluated in patients with cervical carcinoma treated with radical chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the frequency of PIK3CA mutations in patients with cervical cancer treated with radical CRT and (2) to examine the effect of tumor PIK3CA mutational status in pre-treatment biopsies on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS).\n\nMethods. Patients with cervical cancer, treated at a single institution with radical CRT, from 1999 to 2008, were eligible for this retrospective study. Pre-treatment tumor biopsies (n = 157) were retrieved. Genomic DNA was extracted from tumor blocks, and exons 9 and 20 of the PIK3CA gene were sequenced for mutations.\n\nResults.