Here the diagnosis was confirmed, and his left eye was enucleated,
since the tumour was too far advanced to warrant more conventional interventions. SB525334 During the workup it became apparent that the father’s left eye had been enucleated when he was very young too, also due to a retinoblastoma. It turned out that this diagnosis was not known to this man or to his parents and that the possibility of a genetic aetiology had never been discussed with them. During his wife’s pregnancy, no one had ever raised the possibility that the husband’s history of an eye tumour might need closer examination. He was the first one in the family with this problem, and ideally, he should have been referred earlier for genetic testing as 15% of nonfamilial unilateral cases of NVP-HSP990 retinoblastoma concern carriers of a mutation in the retinoblastoma gene. Besides the eye tumour and the reproductive risk, carriers of a retinoblastoma mutation have an increased risk of other tumours and should be checked Selleck Thiazovivin regularly. Besides other options (Dommering et al. 2010), one option for carriers of a retinoblastoma mutation is to have their children tested very soon after birth and to closely monitor those with a mutation, to enable an intervention with more conventional means as soon as a tumour develops. If this had been done in this case, Peter would probably still have
his eye. Fig. 6 Peter S. and his father. Notice the reflection in Peter’s eye (published with written consent of Peter’s father) 6-phosphogluconolactonase How frequent is a positive family history? Although there is wide consensus in literature about the importance of taking a medical family history for preconception care, data on the frequency of a positive family history are scant. The largest population studied was reported by Meschede et al. (2000), who analyzed the yield of pedigree analysis in 1,356 consecutive genetic counselling sessions of women considering invasive prenatal diagnosis for advanced maternal age or an abnormal
result upon triple serum marker screening, and without a secondary indication for genetic counselling. They found 108 cases (8%) with a total of 117 disorders which they regarded as both relevant and significant. To be considered relevant, a disorder had to be manifesting congenitally or during childhood in the majority of cases and to have a major impact on the quality of life. A relevant disorder was considered significant if, after genetic workup the risk to the foetus was estimated to be 0.5% or higher. Besides these relevant and significant disorders in the family, there were 23 cases in which one of the partners had a disorder qualifying as relevant and significant, and in 16 cases, there was significant consanguinity (at least second cousins). Adding these numbers up, 147 cases (11%) had a relevant and significant risk.