It is important to note that the best characterised lysogen-restricted gene, cI (encoding
lambdoid phage repressor), was not LY2874455 order identified using either CMAT or 2D-PAGE, indicating that this study was not exhaustive. Nevertheless, the paucity of information on lysogen-restricted gene expression is such that these data represent a significant step forward in our understanding of phage/host interactions and lysogen biology. Of the 26 phage genes identified in this study, Tsp, encoding the characterised tail spike protein of Φ24B [30, 31] was a known structural protein and therefore not expected to be expressed by a stable lysogen (Tables 1 & 3), while the expression profiles of the other 25 proteins were unknown. Therefore the resulting challenge was to identify the fraction of the culture (lysogens or cells undergoing lysis) that were find more responsible for expression of these 26 phage genes as well as determining testable hypotheses to assign function to the identified gene products. Five genes identified during the CMAT screening were chosen for gene expression profiling due to their genome location, potential function or degree of conservation across a range of phages (Table 3). The CDS CM18 encodes check details a Lom orthologue, which was
expected to be expressed in the lysogen as the lambda lom gene is associated with the alteration of the lysogen’s pathogenic profile after location of Lom in the outer membrane [32–34]. However, expression of lom in the Φ24B
lysogen unexpectedly appears to be uncoupled from the phage regulatory pathways, because it is expressed at many similar levels in an infected cell regardless of whether that cell exists as a stable lysogen or is undergoing prophage induction. The CDS CM2 encodes a putative Dam methyltransferase. Bacterial-encoded Dam methyltransferase has been shown to be essential for maintenance of lysogeny in E. coli infected with Stx-phage 933 W . The expression pattern of the Φ24B-encoded Dam methyltransferase could indicate that it is fulfilling a similar role, or supplementing the function of the host-encoded Dam methylase in lysogens infected with this phage. The functions of CM5 and CM7 are unknown. CM7 is an ORF of 8 kb, and as the amount of DNA that can be packaged by a phage is limited, such a large gene is likely to be conserved only if it confers an advantage to the phage or its lysogen; it may be significant that this large gene is associated with several other phages (Table 3). CM5 is a small CDS located on the complementary strand to the one encoding CM7, in a region with few other CDS, though it is directly upstream of another CMAT-identified CDS, CM6.