Variations in hospital and liver transplantation costs had no impact on the ICER either. Despite their high costs, these procedures are rare, and the large number of outpatients had greater impact on the ICER. Results showed that a universal childhood vaccination program against hepatitis A would have an important impact on the epidemiology of the disease. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) showed our base case scenario of universal vaccination as a cost-saving strategy in the intermediate and low endemic areas, and in Brazil as a whole, from both health
system and society perspective. Among the cost-effectiveness studies of new vaccines (rotavirus, varicella, pneumococcal conjugate, and meningococcal C conjugate) check details we conducted for the Brazilian Ministry of Health, only hepatitis A vaccine proved to be a cost-saving intervention find more , ,  and . In the sensitivity analysis, results were more sensitive to variations in the proportions of icteric infection, vaccine costs and outpatient care costs (Table 4). However, only with large variations in these parameters, universal vaccination becomes not cost-effective in both perspectives. Since there is no Brazilian standard of cost-effectiveness, we use WHO criteria, that considers an intervention “very cost-effective” when the
cost of averting one disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) is less than the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita; an intervention is considered “cost-effective” if the cost per DALY averted is from 1 to 3 times the GDP per capita; and an intervention is “not cost-effective” if the cost per DALY averted is >3 times the GDP per capita. 2008 Brazilian GDP = R$15,240 (US$6541). Hepatitis A seroprevalence
data used in the dynamic model was taken from a nationwide population survey conducted in all state capitals covering all regions, the best available evidence for Brazil. Data from state capitals were generalized to the entire country. Possible differences in seroprevalence of hepatitis A between the capitals, usually with better sanitary conditions, Levetiracetam and smaller towns, villages and rural areas were not considered in the model. However, 2010 Brazilian census showed that 84% of Brazilian population lives in urban areas. A National Sanitation Survey, conducted in 2008, showed that safe water supply reaches 99.4% of Brazilian municipalities, solid waste management (including scavenging and garbage collection) 100%, and sewage collection 55.2% . The proportion of icteric cases and the components and costs of outpatient care have a large impact on the ICER, as shown by sensitivity analysis (Table 4). The numbers of icteric hepatitis A cases are difficult to estimate due to variations in clinical assessment and underreporting. The proportion of icteric cases among all infections is not well known.