1) We found that 104 was the optimal number of pmel-1 spleen cel

1). We found that 104 was the optimal number of pmel-1 spleen cells that could be mixed with 107 WT spleen cells. Compared with WT spleen cells, donor spleen cells from IL-15 KO mice has a significantly less suppressive effect on the primary response of pmel-1 T cells to peptide-pulsed click here DC than spleen cells from WT mice (Supporting Information Fig. 2).

The suppression mediated by co-transfer of WT spleen cells was even more dramatic when the secondary response of pmel-1 T cells to DC vaccination was measured. Surprisingly, the co-transfer of spleen cells from IL-15 KO mice did not suppress but increased the secondary response of pmel-1 T cells. IL-15 KO mice are known to have deficient numbers of CD122+CD8+ memory-like Ensartinib chemical structure (sometimes referred to as “memory-phenotype” or “innate”) T cells, NK, and NKT cells, but have sufficient numbers of CD25+CD4+ Treg (see review 11, and Supporting Information Fig. 2), suggesting that lymphocytes other than CD25+CD4+ Treg played the key suppressive role in our model. Consistent with this notion, CD122+CD8+ memory-like cells constituted the major population of lymphocytes that underwent lymphopenia-driven proliferation when adoptively transferred into sub-lethally irradiated mice (Supporting Information

Fig. 3). To substantiate our initial observations and determine the effect of CD122 depletion on the therapeutic efficacy of adoptive T-cell therapy in lymphopenic

mice, we treated mice bearing http://www.selleck.co.jp/products/Fludarabine(Fludara).html 6-day subcutaneous F10 tumors with irradiation, followed by adoptive transfer of 104 pmel-1 spleen cells and 107 congenic spleen cells with or without prior depletion of CD122+ cells, and vaccination with peptide-pulsed DC. The absolute numbers of pmel-1, congenic, and host T cells in the blood were enumerated at different intervals after vaccination. We found that depletion of CD122+ cells doubled the number of pmel-1 T cells found in the blood of vaccinated mice 2 wk after vaccination (Fig. 1A), and there was no recovery of congenic T cells when CD122+ cells were depleted (Fig. 1B). CD122+ lymphocytes rather than CD122− cells were the primary lymphocyte subpopulation that underwent lymphopenia-driven proliferation. In contrast, host T-cell recovery, which is reflected by the thymic output of naïve T cells, did not differ in recipients of CD122-depleted and non-depleted T cells. Most importantly, depletion of CD122+ lymphocytes resulted in a greater antitumor efficacy (Fig. 1C and D). Depletion of CD122+ cells from congenic donor spleen cells led to a significantly longer delay of tumor growth and an increase in median survival of tumor-bearing mice (from 38 days to 58 days).

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