101,102 However, lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAKCs) lyse t

101,102 However, lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAKCs) lyse trophoblast, and activated NK cells cause abortion.18,103 This suggests that ‘tolerance’ can be broken by systemic activation. In this context, immunisation with OVA induces abortion in OVA transgenic mice,41 an occurrence not seen with classical transgenics. Thus, a ‘modified’ placenta can be seen/rejected as a transplant, but OVA at the trophoblast surface does

not necessarily have the high turnover of MHC class I.58 If this explanation is correct, OVA immunisation should 13 not affect an OVA–MHC recombinant protein transgenic foetus. This bears interest also, as in a Greek study, many patients with RSA were virus positive.104 The forced induction of class II alloantigen on the placenta to induce abortion, as reported CRM1 inhibitor by Athanassakis et al., is very controversial, as Mattson’s group did not reproduce

it. IDO blockade of abortions is mediated by CD4+, not by CD8+ T cells,69 pointing towards a crucial role of local macrophages and complement. Antigen-presenting cells, notably dendritic and CD11+ cells, are involved in the creation of a privileged local selleck products microenvironment,105 while also being crucial for decidualisation/implantation.106 In CBA × DBA/2 matings, syngeneic dendritic cell therapy increases local CD8+, γδ T cells, TGF-beta1, and PIBF, correlating with decreased abortion rates.105,107 A pivotal role was shown for galectin-1 (Gal-1), an immunoregulatory glycan-binding protein, synergising with progesterone. For the influence of stress in pregnancy, we direct readers to recent reviews.108,109 Maternal non-rejection of the foetus also necessitates local regulation /cohabitation with the local innate immune Tau-protein kinase system. Cytotoxic alloantibodies in many species call for complement regulation, and indeed activation of complement is abortifacient.110,111 Also, differential levels of MBL (mannan-binding lectin) are observed in CBA × DBA/2 versus CBA × BALB/c mice and in human patients.112 But complement is regulated at the fetal–placental interface by placental regulatory proteins. Mice made KO for crry destroy their embryos even in syngeneic pregnancy.113

MCP and DAF play this role in humans. Hence, prevastatin is to be tested for abortion and preeclampsia therapy. We will not detail uNK cells and angiogenesis, but according to the missing self-theory, MHC-negative trophoblast, while protected against T-cell effectors by lack of target molecules, should be destroyed by NK cells. The low lytic activity of uNK cells, per se, might seem to be a protection. In fact, while syncytia cannot be destroyed as easily by a single ‘hole’ and offers considerable capacity of self-repair, one should recall that activated NK cells are abortifacient as also seen in ‘natural’ CBA × DBA/2 matings.18 This activation is controlled by the NK-repressing activity of the already detailed HLA-G, placental factors, PIBF, and IL-10.

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