[20, 21] Moreover, fluoroquinolone treatment has recently been identified as a risk factor for the development of a severe form of Mediterranean spotted fever.[22, 23] There is no doubt that tetracyclines remain the first choice for the treatment of rickettsiosis, although administration of fluoroquinolone
either in combination Navitoclax supplier with or as an alternative to tetracyclines might be individualized in cases in which rickettsiosis is highly probable. In summary, we treated a case of severe murine typhus complicated by shock and acute respiratory failure after the patient returned to Japan from traveling to Thailand. It is important to consider murine typhus as a part of differential diagnosis when examining returnees from endemic areas, and start administration of tetracyclines without delay
for rapid recovery and prevention of complications when rickettsiosis Cobimetinib mw is suspected. The clinical experience with quinolone for murine typhus may be regarded as controversial and additional studies are needed to analyze whether it is effective. The authors state that they have no conflicts of interest to declare. “
“Free-living amebae of the genera Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia, Naegleria, and Sappinia are rare causes of infectious diseases in humans with the exception of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), which is reported in over 10,000 soft contact lens wearers annually worldwide. Unlike several Acanthamoeba species, which can cause both AK and granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE), only one species of Naegleria, Naegleria click here fowleri, is known to infect humans by causing an acute, fulminant,
usually lethal, central nervous system (CNS) infection, known as primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM).1–6 Both Acanthamoeba species and N fowleri are distributed worldwide; found commonly in freshwater; and have even been isolated from tap water, air conditioning systems, and improperly maintained swimming pools.1–5 Balamuthia mandrillaris, formerly known as leptomyxid ameba, is another opportunistic, free-living ameba. Like Acanthamoeba spp, B mandrillaris is capable of causing skin lesions and GAE in individuals with compromised or competent immune systems, who inhale infective spores or develop indolent, granulomatous skin lesions in soil-contaminated wounds. Lastly, Sappinia pedata, a recently identified free-living ameba that lives in soil and domestic animal feces, has caused a single case of non-GAE in an immunocompetent Texas farmer. CNS infections caused by these ubiquitous organisms remain rare despite expanding world populations; but are, nevertheless, increasing today due to a combination of factors including increased freshwater recreational activities during heat waves for PAM, more immunocompromised individuals susceptible to GAE, and more soft contact lens wearers at risk of AK.