21, 24 In this study, administration of saffron to DEN-treated ra

21, 24 In this study, administration of saffron to DEN-treated rats reversed DEN-induced up-regulation of NF-κB-p65 subunit (Fig. 4). A similar result is reported in our in vitro studies, where saffron treatment caused an early decrease in the phosphorylation state of IκB (Fig. 5D). This anti-inflammatory effect of saffron against acute and chronic models of inflammation has been previously reported as well.8

In summary, the data presented here show that saffron dramatically inhibited both nodular and FAH formation in livers of DEN-treated rats. This inhibition was associated with induced apoptosis, reduced cell proliferation, decreased oxidative stress and down-regulation of inflammatory markers, such as COX-2, iNOS, NF-κB-p65 and p-TNFR1 AZD2014 in vivo expressions. Figure 6 incorporates our data into a model showing a possible mechanism of the anticancer protective effect of saffron by promoting apoptosis, inhibiting cell proliferation, and blocking inflammation in hepatocarcinomas. Further investigations are currently underway to investigate in more detail the mechanism of action of saffron extract. This work was financially supported by Emirates Foundation grant 2009-079 to A.A. Authors are grateful to Aktham Awwad (Tawam Hospital), Rkia Al-Kharrge (UAE University) for assessing hepatic nodules. Authors are also indebted to Hamdi Kandil (UAE University) and Moustafa Abdalla (Groves High School, MI USA) for their technical assistance.

Additional Selleckchem Carfilzomib Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article. “
“See article in J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2010; 25: 1087–1092 External pancreatic fistula (EPF), also called pancreaticocutaneous fistula, is a reported complication in 38% of patients undergoing pancreatic resection,1 10% after necrosectomy, and 20% after pseudocyst drainage.2 Thus, EPF results medchemexpress from injury during pancreatic resection for pancreaticoduodenal trauma, debridement for necrotizing pancreatitis, and percutaneous drainage for communicating pseudocysts. Although the exact pathogenesis is unclear, parenchymal necrosis that might disrupt the small or even the larger pancreatic ducts is considered as

the most crucial factor.3,4 Clinically, most patients with an EPF present with fistulas pouring low or moderate output volumes that are not life threatening,3 but occasionally serious complications occur. These include abscess, bleeding from the fistulous tract, and sepsis secondary to abscess formation; the latter is usually associated with high fistulous output, and mortality in such complicated cases is 13%–36%.3–5 In patients afflicted with low fistulous output EPF, conservative management is appropriate. This includes nil by mouth, total parenteral nutrition, and administration of inhibitors of pancreatic secretion, such as somatostatin or its analog. Such ‘conservative management’ leads to spontaneous closure of the fistula in 40%–90% of cases.

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