Finally, glomerulonephritis (which is characterized by proteinuria instead of albuminuria) is still common in Asia as a cause of non-diabetic CKD, but its prevalence has decreased in Japan owing to universal proteinuria screening.5 Despite the paucity of RCT in nephrology37 and the above-mentioned limitations, proteinuria and albuminuria are biomarkers Doxorubicin of CKD, CV disease and mortality, and may also be surrogate markers for certain CKD patients (Table 1). Moreover, ACR and PCR are acceptable measures for 24 h urinary excretion.2 Thus, ACR might be recommended for the
diabetics and PCR for the non-diabetics based on the current evidence. “
“It is reported that high serum fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) levels are associated with increased mortality in haemodialysis patients, and can be
caused by hyperphosphataemia and loss of residual renal function. However, hypophosphataemia is also associated with increased mortality in maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients. We studied the determinants of the serum FGF-23 levels in MHD patients, focusing on nutritional status and residual renal function. A total of 332 Japanese MHD patients with a median age of 69 years, and median dialysis vintage of 66 months, were studied. The serum levels of intact FGF-23, albumin, phosphate, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), corrected serum calcium (Ca) levels, urine volume, (creatinine clearance + urea clearance)/2, phosphate clearance, Kt/Vurea, body mass index (BMI), normalized protein catabolic rate selleck products (nPCR), normalized protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance (nPNA), geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI), and the prescribed dosages of active vitamin D and phosphate binders were assessed. The significant independent factors for InFGF-23 by multivariate analysis were age, GNRI, serum phosphate, Ca, iPTH levels and dosage of active vitamin
D in patients without residual renal function (P < 0.05). Among all MHD patients, the lowest BMI, nPNA, nPCR, GNRI, serum albumin, creatinine, over phosphate, Ca, Ca x P product and iPTH values were seen in the lowest serum FGF-23 quartile (FGF-23 < 311 pg/mL). The determinants of the serum FGF-23 level in MHD patients without residual renal function were age, serum phosphate, Ca, iPTH levels, the active vitamin D dose and the GNRI. The lower serum FGF-23 levels may suggest malnutrition in MHD patients. "
“Aim: Allocation of deceased-donor kidneys in Australia often involves the shipping of well-matched renal allografts across states. However, the impact of shipping on graft outcomes remains unclear. In this study, the effect of shipping of well-matched (0–2 human leucocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches) and poorer-matched (3–6 HLA mismatches) deceased-donor kidneys on transplant outcomes in Australia were examined.