HAV comprised 41% of the enterically transmitted hepatitis in our

HAV comprised 41% of the enterically transmitted hepatitis in our cohort. Its prevalence throughout the years seems stable, and this is despite a safe and available vaccine. Although the HAV vaccine exists in Israel since 1995, data regarding the prevalence of the disease in travelers since its introduction are scanty. In travelers, Scott et al. compared the prevaccination era (1993–1998) to the postvaccination era (1999–2003) and described a reduction from 24 cases to 12 cases of acute HAV in foreigners in Nepal.[2] No further data are available.

Twelve of our 13 HAV cases (92%) did not encounter pre-travel consultation and therefore were at substantial risk for the infection. In 1999 Israel was the first country in the world that implemented a national program for HAV vaccination in infancy, with a dramatic decrease in the endemicity of the disease.[14] Our patients were born in the pre-HAV click here Ixazomib in vivo vaccination era and did not encounter pre-travel consultation and therefore are not vaccinated. Further follow-up is needed to determine whether this program will change the epidemiology among Israeli travelers. Meanwhile, better educational efforts should be implemented to improve the awareness of pre-travel vaccinations. Acute HBV was rare, occurring in two cases (4%), both did not receive pre-travel

consultation and vaccinations. Acute HBV risk in travelers to HBV endemic countries run a much lower incidence than expected by behavioral studies. Behavioral studies in travelers suggest that 33% to 76% of all travelers to endemic areas are at risk for acute HBV infection. Only 30% to 46% are Osimertinib cell line vaccinated against HBV.[15-17] Despite this discrepancy, HBV may present substantial morbidity to the individual traveler, and can be an important source of imported hepatitis into the origin countries of these travelers. Therefore, HBV vaccination is an essential recommendation for at risk travelers. HCV manifesting as a clinically acute disease

is a rare phenomenon. Most cases are confined to laboratory hepatitis. The chronic phase of the disease is usually found years after the exposure and is hard to trace back to any travel history. In the case described in our cohort, the HCV case was acquired several weeks after a blood transfusion in Congo, given due to severe falciparum malaria with significant anemia. A total of 14 cases of acute hepatitis remained unspecified. Only four of these cases (29%) were imported from the Indian subcontinent. This is in contrast to the acute HEV group with 16 (84%) cases imported from the Indian subcontinent. This difference is statistically significant (p = 0.003), and allows us to presume that the chances of missed HEV cases in the unspecified group are low. Because acute HAV, HBV, and HCV are easily diagnosed, we believe that the unspecified acute hepatitis cases are a different etiologic group. In all etiology groups, travel duration was long with a total median travel duration of 104 days.

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