Maximum wall thickness and luminal area were measured with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in both common carotid arteries (CCAs) and in one internal carotid artery (ICA)
2 mm above the flow divider. Complete data were available for 1064 ICAs and 3348 CCAs. The association of maximum wall thickness with lumen area was evaluated with linear regression, and adjustments were made for participant age, sex, race, height, and height squared.
Results: In the ICA, lumen area was relatively constant across patients with a wall thickness of 1.38 mm or less. In patients with a wall thickness of more than 1.38 mm, however, lumen area decreased linearly as wall thickness increased. Wall area represented a median of 61.9% of the area circumscribed by the vessel at a maximum wall thickness of 1.50 mm +/- 0.05 (standard deviation) Entinostat cost and 75.4% at a maximum wall thickness of 4.0 mm +/- 0.10. In the CCA,
lumen area was preserved across wall thicknesses less than 2.06 mm, representing 99% of vessels.
Conclusion: Atherosclerotic thickening in the ICA appears to be accommodated for vessels with a maximum wall thickness of less than 1.5 mm. Beyond this threshold, greater thickness is associated NVP-AUY922 price with a smaller lumen. The CCA appears to accommodate a wall thickness of less than 2.0 mm. These estimates indicate that the carotid arteries are able to compensate for a greater degree of thickening than are the coronary arteries. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY/PRINCIPLES:
Analysis of changes in the behaviour of wearing protective equipment by alpine skiers and snowboarders after injury, performed at a level I trauma centre in Switzerland.
METHODS: We present a study, using a standardised questionnaire, assessing behaviour on ski slopes by adult patients admitted between Oct 2007 and April 2008. Patients were re-interviewed after the 2008/2009 season. McNemar tests were used to analyse selleck compound differences in protective clothing wearing rates between the two seasons. Multiple logistic regression with age, gender and injury severity score (ISS) as predictors, was used to compare findings in those who started wearing protective equipment and those who did not.
RESULTS: A total of 104/132 patients from the 2007/2008 season were questioned about wearing protective equipment in 2008/2009. 20 patients could not be reassessed (7 declined, 13 had abandoned winter sports). A total of 84 patients were reassessed (61 alpine skiers and 23 snowboarders). The median age of participants was 39 years and 70.2% were male. Helmet and back protector wearing rates increased from 40.5% to 78.6% (p <0.001) and from 14.3% to 23.8% (p = 0.021), respectively. Snowboarders more than doubled their helmet wearing rate (39.1% to 82.6%, p = 0.002). Skiers showed a trend towards doubling their back protector wearing rate (6.6% to 14.8%, p = 0.063). Younger skiers started wearing back protectors more often than older skiers.