On the contrary, at a given stress voltage, the threshold voltage degradation and stress-induced leakage current degradation in HfAlO samples are higher, indicating shorter device lifetime compared to the HfO2 samples of same EOT. In addition, the mechanism of charge trapping in the oxide as well as at the Si/SiO2 interface of both capacitors is investigated and a model is proposed. A similar generation kinetics was observed for stress-induced oxide trapped positive charges and interface states in either of the devices. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3148297]“
(miRNAs) play important roles in pancreas development and selleck chemical in regulation of insulin expression in the adult. Here we show that loss of miRNAs activity in beta-cells during embryonic development results in lower beta-cell mass and in impaired glucose tolerance. Dicer1-null cells initially constitute a significant portion of the total beta-cell population. However, during postnatal development, Dicer1-null cells are depleted. Furthermore, wild-type beta cells are repopulating the islets in complex compensatory dynamics. Because loss of Dicer1 is also associated with changes in the distribution of membranous E-cadherin, we hypothesized
that E-cadherin activity may play a role in beta cell survival or islet CX-6258 architecture. However, genetic loss of E-cadherin function does not impair islet architecture, suggesting that miRNAs likely function through other or redundant effectors in the endocrine
“In addition to their role as man-made membranes, vesicles continue to be investigated as carriers for drug delivery. While most research focuses on their injectable properties, here a new delivery strategy is proposed. It is shown that spermatozoa can transport vesicles of variable composition. For human spermatozoa, the vesicles started to show binding after 20 mol% of the nonbinding vesicle backbone lipids were substituted with positive, negative, cerebroside or ganglioside lipids. Vesicle binding is a dynamic process with constant ‘on’ and ‘off’ binding. The physiological and motility attributes of the spermatozoa are not affected by the attached vesicles. Sperm swimming characteristics changed only marginally. Also, the activation status of the BVD-523 purchase acrosomal membrane, tested with the fluorescent probe Pisum sativum agglutinin, was not affected by vesicle binding. Moreover, the hyaluronic acid-binding test showed that viable, fully developed spermatozoa will attach and remain bound to hyaluronic acid-coated slides regardless of vesicle binding. Therefore a new ‘hybrid’ delivery system was created with human spermatozoa, and tested with a mouse IVF system. Large unilamellar vesicles physisorbed to mouse spermatozoa can not only penetrate the mouse oocytes in these proof-of-principle experiments, but also deliver the cargo placed within the vesicles. (C) 2013, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.