Our current and previous results suggest that CD8+ T cells freshl

Our current and previous results suggest that CD8+ T cells freshly purified from the BM of normal lymphoreplete mice transiently retain some traits of their in vivo activation in this organ, including higher intracellular phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-5 and phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), lower membrane CD127 expression, and reduced proliferative response to IL-7 [[11, 17]]. Although some of these traits may resemble those of T cells undergoing rapid homeostatic

expansion in lymphopenic hosts, for example low CD127 expression [[37]], other features are different, for example high Bcl-2 expression [[11]]. How much self-antigens and/or cytokines contribute MG-132 datasheet to memory CD8+ T-cell activation in the BM and how long such BM-driven activated cells live are still unsolved RAD001 purchase questions. Nevertheless our studies suggest that a prominent role is played by IL-15, and that BM seeding by recirculating

antigen-specific memory CD8+ T cells is associated with long-term memory [[10, 11, 16, 17]]. Future studies will be necessary to define the rate of homing and egress of memory CD8+ T cells in and out of LNs, spleen, and BM, as well as to determine the kinetics of CD127 expression by recirculating memory CD8+ T cells. Cyclical expression of a membrane molecule by recirculating T cells due to microenvironment-driven modulation has been demonstrated in the case of CD62L [[38]]. Our CD127 mRNA expression results together with the CD127tg cell findings point to regulatory noncoding regions as important

targets of IL-15-dependent transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional regulation. This is consistent with both in vitro studies showing IL-15-induced CD127 transcriptional inhibition in LN T cells [[6]] and in vivo observations showing impaired membrane CD127 downmodulation selleck kinase inhibitor by antigen-responding CD8+ T cells in IL-15 KO mice [[39]]. Our further investigation on the CD127 transactivator Foxo1 [[32]] showed that Foxo1 protein was less abundant in BM CD44high CD8+ T cells than in corresponding cells from spleen and LNs of both WT and IL-15 KO mice. We cannot completely exclude that Foxo1 low amount in the BM contributes to the reduced CD127 transcription by an IL-15-independent mechanism. Nevertheless, the fact that Foxo1 is low and yet CD127 is not downmodulated in IL-15 KO BM suggests that the contribution of Foxo1 has minor relevance, if any. Further studies are required to define the molecular mechanisms differentially regulating CD127 expression in WT versus IL-15 KO mice. Our results have implications for human therapies targeting membrane CD127 expressed by T cells. Based on mouse studies, it has been proposed to use anti-CD127 Ab in humans to inhibit either donor T cells in graft versus host disease (GVHD) [[40]] or recipient T cells in transplant rejection [[41]].

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