Our results revealed that during exponential phase of growth in s

Our results revealed that during exponential phase of growth in serum, 48 ORFs related to iron acquisition, transport, and metabolism were upregulated as compared to growth in LB medium. The protein products of many GDC-0973 solubility dmso of these transcripts function in the production and secretion of the A. baumannii siderophore, acinetobactin (Yamamoto et al., 1994) that has an affinity for iron-saturated transferrin and lactoferrin (Mihara et al., 2004).

Additionally, an iscRSUA operon repressor (A1S_1634) was upregulated; IscR represses an operon that encodes proteins required for iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis. Repression of this operon is expected to increase the amount of cellular free iron, allowing for its use in essential proteins. During stationary NVP-LDE225 mw phase growth in human serum, two loci (A1S_1608 and A1S_1609), coding for heme-binding lipoproteins and a putative iron transport protein (A1S_1787), were also induced. Taken together, these data suggest that growth in human serum induces biological processes that allow A. baumannii to cope with the low iron environment of the human host. RT-PCR confirmed the serum-dependent expression properties of randomly selected iron acquisition/metabolism loci, providing confidence that our microarray approach serves as an appropriate means of investigating the organism’s serum response (Fig. 3a). Products of the pilA-Z operon produce type-4

pili, which are involved in bacterial attachment

to epithelial cells and twitching motility (Mattick et al., 1996). While the A. baumannii pilA-Z genes were not expressed during exponential growth in LB medium, many were upregulated during exponential phase in human serum. Additionally, an alkali-inducible disulfide interchange protein (A1S_0037), which assists folding of periplasmic proteins via disulfide bond transfer and is required for pilus biogenesis, and a putative phospholipase A1 (A1S_1919), which hydrolyzes phospholipids and plays a role in invasion of host cells, were also upregulated. Collectively, these data indicate that during growth in human serum, A. baumannii are poised to anchor to and invade host cells (Jacobs et al., 2010). Type-4 Astemizole pili are also commonly linked to DNA uptake and natural competence. Interestingly, a putative DNA uptake protein (A1S_0582) and five ORFs involved in DNA recombination were also upregulated during exponential phase serum growth. While three of these loci (A1S_0321, A1S_1637, and A1S_1962) are believed to contribute to DNA repair functions and therefore may promote adaptation to stress-induced DNA damage, the other two loci, site-specific tyrosine recombinase (A1S_0241) and integration host factor (A1S_1573), are involved in recombination of DNA strands possessing low sequence homology to one another. It is conceivable that induction of the A.

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