Publication in HIV Medicine. Shortened version detailing concise summary of recommendations. E-learning module accredited for CME. Educational EX 527 cost slide set to support local and regional educational meetings. National BHIVA audit programme. The guidelines will be next fully updated and revised in 2014. However, the Writing Group will continue to meet regularly to consider new information from high-quality studies and publish amendments and addendums to the current recommendations before the full revision date where this is thought to be clinically important to ensure
continued best clinical practice. “
“Deinococcus radiodurans tolerates extensive DNA damage and exhibits differential expression of various genes associated with the growth of the organism Staurosporine nmr and DNA repair. In cells treated with γ radiation, the levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and ATP increased rapidly by differentially regulating adenylyl cyclase (AC) and 2′3′ cAMP phosphodiesterase. The levels of cAMP, ATP, AC and protein kinases were high when phosphodiesterase activity was low. These cells exhibited in vivo inhibition of nucleolytic function by reversible protein phosphorylation and contained the comparatively higher levels of total phosphoproteins. We suggest that Deinococcus, a prokaryote, uses DNA damage-induced signaling mechanism as evidenced by γ radiation-induced synthesis
of secondary messengers and signaling enzymes. Protein phosphorylation constitutes an important regulatory network that controls the cellular functions including cell division, cellular differentiation and signal transduction in all organisms (Pawson, 1994). At molecular levels, this regulates metabolic functions such as enzyme activity modulation, protein trafficking, protein–protein and DNA–protein interactions and recycling of proteins (Ubersax & Ferrell, 2007). By reversible protein phosphorylation, the functions of proteins can be rapidly modulated without the need for new protein synthesis
or degradation. This phenomenon until is regulated by the relative abundance of stress-responsive protein kinases and phosphatases in the cells (Sefton & Hunter, 1998). In eukaryotes, the significance of reversible protein phosphorylation is amply illustrated by the involvement of DNA damage-induced signal transduction and protein kinase C-mediated signaling mechanism in cell cycle regulation (Sancar et al., 2004; Kitagawa & Kastan, 2005). The existence of such mechanisms and their implications in DNA strand break (DSB) repair and bacterial growth would be worth investigating in Deinococcus radiodurans, a bacterium that confers extraordinary tolerance to DNA damage and has acquired a large number of putative sensor kinases and response regulators (White et al., 1999) from other organisms (Makarova et al., 2001).