Restricting the analyses to patients who fulfilled the ACR criter

Restricting the analyses to patients who fulfilled the ACR criteria, the results were practically unchanged. Examining individually the profiles of KIR genes in the entire sample of patients

and controls, 33 different combinations of KIR genes were observed. Only one of these profiles (which contained the combination 2DS2+/2DL2+) was more frequent in controls than in patients (OR: 0·11, 95% CI: 0·012–0·48, P < 0·001). Other profiles were not associated with SSc. Analysing specifically the KIR2DS2 gene, it was not related significantly to risk for SSc (Table 2). However, after performing stratified analysis according to the KIR2DL2 status, KIR2DS2 was a significant risk factor for systemic sclerosis, particularly in the absence of KIR2DL2 (Table 4). Furthermore, we observed linkage disequilibrium between absence of KIR 2DL2 and the presence of 2DS2 (P < 0·0001),

meaning that this combination occurs more frequently in disease than would be expected from a random formation of haplotypes. The associations of activating and inhibitory KIR genes with SSc were this website analysed additionally in the context of their respective HLA-C ligands using stratified analysis. The odds ratios of KIR2DL2, KIR2DS2, KIR2DS2+/KIR2DL2-, KIR2DS2-/KIR2DL2+ and KIR2DS2+/KIR2DL2+ for SSc were virtually unchanged after stratification for HLA-C1 status, and no significant interactions were observed. For example, in HLA-C1-negative individuals the odds ratio of KIR2DL2 for SSc was 0·20 (95% CI: 0·05–0·71), while in HLA-C1-positive individuals it was 0·23 (0·11–0·46). In the same Orotidine 5′-phosphate decarboxylase way, the tests for associations of KIR2DS1, KIR2DL1 and its combinations with SSc were changed minimally and non-significantly after stratification for HLA-C2, and there were no significant interactions. When clinical and laboratory data of the SSc patients were compared, no significant differences in the KIR gene frequencies

were found with regard to the severity of skin disease, disease subtype, pulmonary interstitial and vascular involvement and autoantibody profile. The results of the present study, investigating a sample of patients and controls from south Brazil, suggests that the KIR allele 2DL2+ is protective for SSc, while the combination KIR 2DS2+/2DL2- is related to increased risk for the disease. Two previous studies have investigated the frequencies of KIR genes in SSc patients, reporting discrepant results. Momot et al.[10], studying 102 cases and 100 controls, found an association of the combination KIR 2DS2+/2DL2- with increased risk for SSc in a sample of German SSc patients. This result is confirmed by our study. However, they have not found a significant independent protective role for the KIR2DL2. Pellet et al.

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