Samples (10 g) were blended with 90 mL of sterilized distilled wa

Samples (10 g) were blended with 90 mL of sterilized distilled water and chopped for 1 min in a Promedia SH-II M homogenizer. Serial dilutions Ivacaftor clinical trial were used for isolation of LAB using MRS agar at 30 °C for 72 h under anaerobic conditions. In addition, coliform bacteria were plated on blue light broth agar (Nissui Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) and incubated at 30 °C for 72 h under aerobic conditions. Mold and yeast were incubated using potato dextrose agar (Nissui Pharmaceutical) adjusted to pH 3.5 with 10% tartaric acid at 30 °C for 72 h under aerobic conditions. Yeasts were distinguished from molds or bacteria by colony

appearance and cell morphology. Aerobic bacteria were incubated on nutrient agar (Nissui Pharmaceutical) at 30 °C for 72 h. Homogenates of samples incubated at 75 °C for 15 min were used to count

spore-forming clostridia and bacilli. Clostridia were counted on clostridia count agar (Nissui Pharmaceutical) after incubation in an anaerobic Target Selective Inhibitor Library cell assay box at 30 °C for 3–5 days. Bacilli were detected on nutrient agar (Nissui Pharmaceutical) after aerobic incubation at 30 °C for 72 h. Colonies were counted as viable numbers of microorganisms [in CFU per gram of fresh matter (FM)]. Dry matter was analyzed according to method 934.01 of AOAC International. Fermentation products were extracted by sterilized distilled water as described above. The pH of the filtrate was measured with an MP230 glass electrode pH meter (Mettler Toledo, Columbus, OH). The organic acid contents were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography on an LC-2000Plus HPLC system (Jasco, Tokyo, Japan) as previously described (Cao et al., 2011). VBN was determined by steam distillation in a Kjeltec 2400 automatic distillation titration system (FOSS, Hillerød, Denmark); 10 mL of filtrate was steam distilled, and the VBN was absorbed in 2% (w/v) boric acid and then titrated with 0.01 M HCl solution in the presence of methyl red and bromocresol Liothyronine Sodium green indicators. Differences in means were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance aided by prism software (Prism Software Co., Irvine, CA), and P values equal to or < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

The taxonomic position of the four strains was first investigated. The four strains were grouped on the phylogenetic tree with L. pentosus, L. plantarum subsp. plantarum, L. plantarum subsp. argentoratensis, and L. paraplantarum (Fig. S1). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity is not sufficient to certify the species and subspecies in the L. plantarum group (Torriani et al., 2001; Bringel et al., 2005). Because the recA gene is more variable and can thus help differentiate within this group, the four strains were distinguished by means of recA gene amplification. Analysis by a recA-specific multiplex PCR revealed that the PCR products of all tested strains were similar to those of L. plantarum subsp. plantarum JCM 1149T, indicating that these strains are L. plantarum subsp. plantarum (Fig. 1).

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