The Seascape also includes critical habitats for globally threate

The Seascape also includes critical habitats for globally threatened marine species, including sea turtles and cetaceans. The boundaries of the BHS were delineated based on biogeographic integrity, oceanic and genetic connectivity between reef areas, shared ecological characteristics and environmental

factors that may explain how species are distributed (Green and Mous, 2008). The geographic scale of this review is the Seascape because of its practicality for marine conservation strategies, particularly for the design and implementation of marine protected area (MPA) networks, and its adoption by the six countries of the Coral Triangle – Indonesia, Timor-Leste, EPZ015666 in vitro Philippines, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands (Coral Triangle Initiative, 2009). The BHS boundaries fall primarily within the West Papua province with only a small

portion falling within the adjacent province of Papua. Therefore, BHs boundaries closely align with governance boundaries in Indonesia. Indonesia currently has a three-tiered system of de-centralized Selleckchem BYL719 governance, made up of regencies, provinces and a national government. Throughout this paper, the term ‘Papua’ on its own, is used to represent both the provinces of West Papua and Papua. Over the last decade, environmental issues in the BHS have received significant attention from local governments and international non-government organizations (NGOs). This interest has been driven by the high diversity of the region and growing concerns over the impacts of rapid escalation in development. Scientists, governments and NGOs have conducted biological, social, economic, and governance studies

to support policy, conservation and sustainable development efforts in very the region. Much of this work is largely unpublished and available only in the Indonesian language, and therefore inaccessible to the wider science community. This review is the first to synthesize and summarize available data, reports and scientific publications on climate and oceanography, coastal and marine habitats and endangered species in the BHS. It identifies the existing uses, and emerging and increasing threats to the region, and summarizes the governance and policies underpinning natural resource management and conservation efforts in the region. The equatorial location of the BHS means that the main seasonal influence is monsoons driven by the annual movement of the inter-tropical convergence zone 15° north and south of the equator (Prentice and Hope, 2007). The movement across the equator creates two distinct monsoon seasons. The northwest monsoon extends from November to March and is characterized by warmer SSTs (Fig. 2a), occasional strong winds and ocean swell predominantly in the north. The southeast monsoon from May to October is characterized by cooler sea surface temperatures (SSTs) (Fig.

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